Creeaza.com - informatii profesionale despre


Simplitatea lucrurilor complicate - Referate profesionale unice



Acasa » referate » biologie
Efectul de a Bridelia ferruginea si Senna alata pe Concentrarea in glicemiei plasmatice Normoglycemic

Efectul de a Bridelia ferruginea si Senna alata pe Concentrarea in glicemiei plasmatice Normoglycemic





Ethnobotanical Pliante 10: 209-218. 2006. 2006.

The Effect of Bridelia ferruginea and Senna alata on Plasma Glucose Concentration in Normoglycemic and Glucose Induced Hyperglycemic Rats Efectul de a Bridelia ferruginea si Senna alata pe Concentrarea in glicemiei plasmatice Normoglycemic si glucoza indusa de Hyperglycemic Sobolani


Abstract Rezumat

         A total of 30 female albino rats were used in this study. The plasma glucose levels in these subjects were estimated after administration of methanol extracts of Bridelia ferruginea and Senna alata . The mean ages of the rats were 8 weeks old and mean weights were 165g. Phytochemical screening of the methanol bark extract of Bridelia ferruginea and methanol leaves extract of Senna alata revealed the presence of tannins, polyphenols , steroids, triterpenes , and alkaloids. Methanol extract of Bridelia ferruginea bark achieved statistical significant difference in the normoglycemic rats and glucose induced hyperglycemic rats (P<0.05). There was no statistical significant difference observed in the control rats (P<0.05). However, Senna alata did not achieve any significant difference statistically in normoglycemic , hyperglycemic and control rats (P>0.05). Un total de 30 de albinos femele de sobolan au fost folosite in acest studiu. Nivelurile de a glicemiei plasmatice, in aceste subiecte au fost estimate dupa administrarea de extracte de metanol si Bridelia ferruginea Senna alata. Medie de varsta de 8 saptamani de sobolan au fost vechi si au fost greutatile spui 165g. Phytochemical de screening de metanol extras din scoarta Bridelia ferruginea metanol si extract de frunze de Senna alata a relevat prezenta a tannins, polifenoli, steroizi, triterpenes, si alcaloizi. Metanol extras din scoarta Bridelia ferruginea realizat o diferenta semnificativa statistic in normoglycemic sobolani si glucoza indusa de hyperglycemic sobolani (P <0,05). Nu a fost nici o diferenta semnificativa statistic observate la sobolani, de control (P <0,05). Cu toate acestea, Senna alata nu au obtinut nici o diferenta semnificativa statistic in normoglycemic, hyperglycemic sobolani si de control (P> 0,05).   The effect of Bridelia ferruginea and Senna alata methanol extracts on plasma glucose concentration in normoglycemic and glucose induce hyperglycemic rats is therefore discussed. Efectul Bridelia ferruginea Senna alata metanol si extrasele de pe a glicemiei plasmatice, in concentratie de glucoza si normoglycemic induce hyperglycemic sobolani, prin urmare, este de discutat.

Key Words: Bridelia ferruginea , Senna alata , normoglycemic , hyperglycemic. Cuvinte cheie: Bridelia ferruginea, Senna alata, normoglycemic, hyperglycemic.

Introduction Introducere

The pharmacological management of diabetes mellitus has changed dramatically in the past few years with the introduction of many new medications, including a- glucosidase inhibitors, a biguanide , the thizolidinediones , insulin analogs, maglitinides and D-phenylalanine derivatives. These new agents have dramatically increased the number of options available to providers and patients ( Unwin et al., 1999). Combination therapy has become common place for the management of hyperglycemia in patients with type II diabetes ( Yki-Jarvinan , 2001). Farmacologice de management de diabet zaharat sa schimbat dramatic in ultimii ani cu introducerea de noi de multe medicamente, inclusiv inhibitori de-glucosidase, un biguanide, de thizolidinediones, analogii de insulina, si D-maglitinides derivati de fenilalanina. Aceste noi de agenti au crescut dramatic a numarului de optiuni disponibile pentru furnizori si de pacienti (Unwin et al., 1999). Tratamentul asociat a devenit loc comun de gestionare a hiperglicemie, la pacientii cu diabet zaharat de tip II (Yki-Jarvinan, 2001).

Man since time immemorial has been using herbs or plant products as medicine for developing immunity or resistance against cold, joint pains fever and so on. Scientific data on a good number of medicinal plants investigated has been well documented (Gupta, 1994). However, only very few drugs of plant origin could reach clinical use and the National Formulatory could not adopt even a dozen of plant for medicines. For this reason, a special effort is needed for the development of herbal drugs having therapeutic utility (Gupta, 1994). Plant products investigated for anti-diabetic effect have been exhaustively reviewed ( Irobi & Daramola , 1994). There are 1,200 species of plants representing 725 genera in 183 families extending from the marine algae and fungi with anti-diabetic activity. The mechanisms of action of most anti-diabetics herbs are not clear, although a few have been documented. Diasulin is a polyherbal drug, which control glucose level by increasing glycolysis and decreasing gluconeogenesis with a lower demand of pancreatic insulin. It also regulates the activities of hepatic glucose metabolic enzymes (Pan et al., 2001). Omul de cand a fost timp imemorial, folosind produsele din plante sau de ierburi ca medicament pentru imunitate in curs de dezvoltare sau de rezistenta fata de frig, febra, dureri in comun si asa mai departe. Stiintific de date de pe un numar bun de plante medicinale a fost investigat de bine documentate (Gupta, 1994). Cu toate acestea, doar foarte putine droguri de origine vegetala ar putea ajunge la utilizarea clinica si Nationale Formulatory nu ar putea adopta chiar de o duzina de plante pentru medicamente. Din acest motiv, este un efort necesar pentru dezvoltarea de plante terapeutice de medicamente care au utilitate (Gupta, 1994). Produse din plante investigate pentru diabetici efect anti-exhaustiv au fost revizuite (Irobi & Daramola, 1994). Exista 1200 de specii de plante, reprezentand 725 genuri in 183 de familii de extindere de la marin, alge si fungi cu anti-diabetic activitate. Mecanismele de actiune a cel mai anti-diabetici de plante aromatice nu sunt clare, desi, au fost documentate. Diasulin este o polyherbal de droguri, care controla nivelul de glucoza prin cresterea glycolysis si scade gluconeogeneza cu o cerere de pancreatice mai mici de insulina. Este de asemenea reglementeaza activitatile de glucoza hepatica enzime metabolice (Pan et al., 2001).

In In India , herbal preparations have been used in the treatment of diabetes. A review carried out in April 2004 showed that a few herbs have been scientifically tested to have anti-diabetic activity. These includes; Mamordrica charantia , Pterocarpus marsupium and Trigonella foenumgreacum . Mechanisms such as the stimulating or regenerating effect on B-cells or extrapancreatic effects are proposed for the hypoglycemic action of these herbs ( Saxera & Vikram , 2004). , Preparatele din plante care au fost utilizate in tratamentul diabetului zaharat. O revizuire efectuate in aprilie 2004 a aratat ca de cateva plante aromatice, au fost testate stiintific, de a avea activitate anti-diabetica. Acestea include; Mamordrica charantia, Pterocarpus marsupium si Trigonella foenumgreacum. Mecanisme, cum ar fi de stimulare sau efect regenerator asupra celulelor B sau Efectele extrapancreatice sunt propuse pentru a hypoglycemic de actiune a acestor plante aromatice (Saxera & Vikram, 2004).

Natural compounds with anti-diabetic activity in descending frequency of occurrence includes, complex carbon hydrates, alkaloids, glycopeptides, terpenoids , peptides, amines, steroids, flavonoids , lipids, coumarins , sulphur compounds and inorganic ions. Naturale, compusi cu activitate anti-diabetic in descrescatoare frecventa de aparitie include, complexe de hidrati de carbon, alcaloizi, glycopeptides, terpenoids, peptide, amine, steroizi, flavonoids, lipide, coumarins, de sulf si compusi anorganici ioni. The anti-diabetic mechanisms involved in hypoglycemic activity are numerous, including direct competitive antagonism with insulin, stimulation of insulin secretion, stimulation of glycogenosis and hepatic glycolysis , Pancreatic beta cell potassium channel blockers, cAMP (Cyclic adenosine monophosphate ) stimulation, modulation of glucose absorption from the gut among others ( Marles , 1996). Anti-diabetic mecanisme implicate in hypoglycemic activitate sunt numeroase, inclusiv antagonism competitiv directa cu insulina, de stimulare a secretiei de insulina, stimularea glycogenosis si insuficienta hepatica glycolysis, pancreatic de celule beta blocante ale canalelor de potasiu, Camp (ciclice adenozin monofosfat) stimulare, de modulare a absorbtiei de glucoza de la tarie de caracter, printre altele (Marles, 1996).

Bridelia ferruginea is the commonest savannah Bridelia . It is usually a gnarled shrub, which sometimes reaches the size of a tree in suitable condition, and the down curved tip of the leave is destructive. Its common names are Kirni , kizni (Hausa), Marehi (Fulani), Iralodan (Yoruba), Ola (Igbo). The bark is dark grey, rough and often markedly scaly (Rashid et al., 2002). The bark extract of the plant has been used for milk coagulation and also lime juice, for the formulation of traditional gargle “ Ogun efu ” ( Orafidiya et al., 1990). It is also used as purgative and a vermifuge ( Cimanga et al., 1997). Iwu , 1984 also showed that the plant has molluscidal activity. Adeoye et al., (1988) reported that the bark extract of the plant has anti-microbial activity against microorganisms’ known to cause enteric and secondary upper respiratory tract infections. Bridelia ferruginea este de intensitate Savannah Bridelia. Aceasta este, de obicei un ursuz arbust, care uneori ajunge la marimea de un copac in stare corespunzatoare, si in varful in jos curbe de concediu este distructiv. Sau nume comune sunt Kirni, kizni (Hausa), Marehi (Fulani), Iralodan (Yoruba), Ola (Igbo). Cojii este gri, dur si adesea semnificativ solzos (Rashid et al., 2002). Scoarta de extras din plante a fost utilizat pentru lapte de coagulare si, de asemenea, suc de lamaie , In formularea de gargara traditionale 'Ogun efu' (Orafidiya et al., 1990). Este, de asemenea, utilizat ca purgativ si un vermifug (Cimanga et al., 1997). Iwu, 1984 a aratat de asemenea ca a molluscidal activitate de plante. Adeoye et al., (1988) a raportat ca a extras din scoarta de plante a activitatii anti-microbiene impotriva microorganismelor 'cunoscute a determina enteric secundar si infectii ale tractului respirator superior.

The genus Senna Genul Senna ( Leguminosae ) comprises of 750-800 tropical and sub-tropical species. They are mostly trees with typical leaf form bipinnate with numerous leaflets and small scaly strip (Airy, 1973). The plant Senna alata is an ornamental shrub, which grows all year round, and flowers during November to January. It grows well in the forest areas of (Leguminosae) cuprinde de 750-800 tropicale si sub-specii tropicale. Ele sunt in cea mai mare de arbori cu frunzele de forma bipinnate tipic cu numeroase pliante si mici solzos benzi (Airy, 1973). Senna de plante ornamentale alata este un arbust, care creste tot anul rotunde, si flori, in cursul lunii noiembrie pentru a ianuarie. Este bine creste in zonele de padure West Africa Africa de Vest . In . In Tanzania , Mustasa et al., (1990) conducted an investigation on the root bark of Senna alata gel which is used in local herbal medicine against convulsions, gonorrhoea , bilhazia , heart-burn, stomach ache, constipation, wounds and Snake bites. In the light of all these, the bark extracts of “ Ganna Ganna ” tree ( Senna spp ) so called in the kpelle language in Liberia folk medicine was investigated and the effect of some bark extracts in vivo and in vitro on microfilaria were examined and found effective ( Kilian et al., 1990). , Mustasa et al., (1990) efectuat o investigatie cu privire la radacina scoarta de Senna alata gel care este utilizat in medicina locale din plante impotriva convulsii, gonoree, bilhazia, arde-inima, dureri de stomac, constipatie, plagi si Snake muscaturilor. In tinand seama de toate aceste, scoarta de extracte de 'Ganna Ganna' copac (Senna spp.), astfel numit in limba kpelle in Liberia populare medicament a fost investigat si a efectului unele extracte din scoarta in vivo si in vitro, pe microfilaria au fost examinate si eficiente gasit ( Kilian et al., 1990).

Moreover, the leaves have also been reported to be efficacious in the treatment of ringworm and eczema. The bark was found to be useful for various skin diseases ( Mai mult, frunzele au fost raportate, de asemenea pentru a fi eficace in tratarea de eczeme si impetigo. Scoarta a fost de gasit pentru a fi utile pentru diverse boli ale pielii ( Marshall , 1951). This study therefore intend to examine the effects of the bark extract of Bridelia ferruginea and leaves extract of Senna alata on plasma glucose concentration in normoglycemic and glucose induced hyperglycemic rats. , 1951). Acest studiu, prin urmare, intentioneaza sa examineze efectele de extract de scoarta de Bridelia ferruginea si extract de frunze de Senna pe alata a glicemiei plasmatice, in normoglycemic de concentrare si de glucoza indusa de hyperglycemic sobolani.

Materials and Methods Materiale si Metode

Subject selection Subiect de selectie

A total number of 30 female albino rats weighing between 150-180g were obtained from the animal breeding unit of the Department of Veterinary Physiology, Un numar total de 30 de femele de sobolan albinos cu greutate intre 150-180g au fost obtinute de la cresterea animalelor unitatea de la Departamentul de Fiziologie Veterinara, University Universitatea of al Ibadan Ibadan . These rats were kept in well-ventilated cages at the animal House of the virology Department, University college hospital, . Aceste sobolan au fost tinute in custi bine aerisit, la Casa de animale de la Departamentul de virusologie, Universitatea colegiu spital, Ibadan Ibadan .

Breeding and feeding Reproducere si hranire

The animals were fed with pellets bought from Ladokun feeds, Mokola , Animalele au fost hranite cu pelete cumparat de la Ladokun alimentari, Mokola, Ibadan Ibadan and adequate clean water was provided. After about 8 weeks of breeding to the desired weight (the average of which was 165g), the rats were divided into groups. adecvate de apa curata si a fost furnizat. Dupa aproximativ 8 saptamani de reproducere la greutatea dorita (in medie, din care a fost de 165g), de sobolan au fost impartiti in grupuri.

Grouping Gruparea

The rats were divided into 2 major groups’ based on the extracts to be administered. Each major group was then subdivided into 3 subgroups each, based on their glycaemic states (ie normoglycemic , glucose induced hyperglycemic) and the third group, the control. Each major group consists of 15 female albino rats while each subgroup consists of 5 female albino rats. De sobolan au fost impartiti in 2 grupuri majore ', pe baza extraselor de a fi administrat. Majore Fiecare grup a fost apoi divizat in 3 subgrupuri fiecare, pe baza lor glicemic membre (de exemplu normoglycemic, hyperglycemic indusa de glucoza) si cel de-al treilea grup, de control. Fiecare majore de grup este format din 15 albinos femele de sobolan in timp ce fiecare subgrup este format din 5 femele de sobolan albinos.

Sub-group Sub-grup

Normoglycemic group consists of rats fed with the normal diet, water and extracts administered intraperitoneally . Normoglycemic grup consta din sobolani hraniti cu regimul alimentar normal, de apa si administrat intraperitoneal de extrase. Glucose induced hyperglycemic group consists of rats fed with the normal diet with a glucose load. This was done by dissolving 50g of D-glucose in 100mls of water, which they drank throughout the experiment such that at every point in time, there was significant increase in the glucose compared with the control. This group was then administered with the extracts intraperitoneally after hyperglycemia had been induced in the rats. The control group consists of rats fed with the normal diet and given clean water. No extracts were administered to these rats. Indusa de glucoza hyperglycemic grup consta din sobolani hraniti cu regimul alimentar normal, cu o incarcatura de glucoza. Acest lucru a fost facut de dizolvare D-50g de glucoza in 100mls de apa, pe care le-a baut pe tot parcursul experimentului, astfel incat la fiecare moment in timp, acolo a fost de crestere semnificativa in glucoza, comparativ cu controlul. Acest grup a fost apoi administrat cu extracte intraperitoneal de hiperglicemie dupa ce a fost indusa in sobolani. grupul de control consta din sobolani hraniti cu regimul alimentar normal si dat de apa curata. nr extrase au fost administrate la aceste sobolani.

Extracts administration Extrase de administrare

The animals were administered with 250mg/kg body weight of the leaf extract of Senna alata and bark extract of Bridelia ferruginea respectively for period of 21 days. The extracts were administered intraperitoneally ( Kuma et al., 2000) De animale au fost administrate cu greutate corporala de 250mg/kg de extract de frunze de Senna alata extract de scoarta si de Bridelia ferruginea, respectiv, pentru perioada de 21 de zile. Extrase au fost administrate intraperitoneal (Kuma et al., 2000)

Specimen collection Specimen de colectare a

Blood samples were collected from the rats through intracardiac puncture using tuberculin syringes. Samples were collected into specimen bottles containing fluoride oxalate as anticoagulant, which inhibits glycolysis as well as preserves the samples. Samples were collected at intervals of 7 days over a period of 21 days from both the test and the control rats. Probe de sange au fost colectate de la sobolani, prin punctie intracardiac folosind seringi de tuberculina. Mostrele au fost colectate in flacoane continand modelul de fluorura de oxalate ca anticoagulant, care inhiba glycolysis, precum si pastreaza in probe. Mostrele au fost colectate la intervale de 7 zile, pe o perioada de 21 de zile de la ambele, de test si de control de sobolan.

Samples were later centrifuge at 3,000rpm for 10 minutes using a MSE centrifuge (Centaur 2). The plasma was extracted and dispensed intro serum bottles. Mostrele au fost mai tarziu centrifuge de la 3000rpm timp de 10 de minute, folosind un BVM de centrifugare (Centaurul 2). Plasmatice a fost de extrase si a renunta intro ser de sticle.

Basal samples were collected first before the administration of the extracts (ie at day 7, 14 and 21) daily. Bazala de esantioane au fost colectate inainte de prima administrare de extracte (de exemplu, la 7 zile, 14 si 21) pe zi, zilnic.

Determination of blood glucose Determinarea glicemiei

The determination of blood glucose is adapted from the Glucose oxidase method of Trinder et al., 1972. De determinare a glicemiei este adaptat de la a glucozei oxidase metoda de Trinder et al., 1972.

Collection of plants Colectia de plante



The leaves of Senna alata and the bark of Bridelia ferruginea benth were collected within and outside of De frunze de Senna alata si scoarta de Bridelia ferruginea Benth au fost colectate in cadrul si in afara Ilorin Ilorin Township . A voucher sample was deposited in the herbarium of the Department of Plant Biology, . Un cupon de esantion a fost depus in ierbarul de la Departamentul de Biologie a Plantelor, University of Ilorin Universitatea de Ilorin , Nigeria .

Extraction procedure Procedura de extractie

On the basis of information obtained on the mode of usage from traditional healers, laboratory extraction of the leaves of Senna alata and the bark of Bridelia ferruginea was done using the solvent methanol at ambient temperature (Kim et al., 1999) Pe baza informatiilor obtinute cu privire la modul de utilizare traditionala de la healers, laborator de extractie din frunze de Senna alata si scoarta de Bridelia ferruginea a fost efectuata prin utilizarea de solventi metanol la temperatura ambianta (Kim et al., 1999)

Bridelia Bridelia bark pieces were collected from the tree of Bridelia ferruginea Benth , Linn. scoarta de piese au fost colectate de la arborele de Bridelia ferruginea Benth, Linn. ( Euphorbiaceae ). The bark pieces were cleaned and the epidermal layer and pith removed, while the wine coloured portion of the bark pieces was then exposed. The bark pieces were cut into small pieces and dried in an oven ( Gallenkamp Oven BS size two) at 40 0 C for 48 hours. The dried pieces pulverized using the Laboratory Mill (Christy and Norris limited, Machine type 8). Two kilograms of the powder were exhaustively extracted with one liter of absolute methanol over a period of six days at room temperature. The suspension was then decanted and filtered through whatsman paper No.1. The residue obtained was then concentrated to reddish-brown gummy material by evaporation to dryness at 45 0 C in a rotary evaporator ( Buchi-rotavapor ). (Euphorbiaceae). Scoarta de piese au fost curatate si epidermica strat de maduva si indepartat, in timp ce vin de culoare parte din scoarta de piese a fost apoi expuse. Scoarta de piese au fost taiate in bucati mici si uscate intr-un cuptor (cuptor Gallenkamp BS Marime doua) la 40 0 C timp de 48 de ore. uscate de piese pulverized folosind Laborator Mill (Christy si Norris, limitate, de masini de tip 8). Doua kilograme de pulbere exhaustiv au fost extrase cu un litru de metanol absolut, pe o perioada de sase zile, la temperatura camerei . Suspendarea a fost apoi decantata si filtrata prin whatsman hartie Nr.1. Obtinute de reziduuri de atunci a fost concentrat la brun-roscat de material vascos de evaporare pentru a uscaciune la 45 0 C intr-un evaporator rotativ (Buchi-rotavapor).

The above extraction procedures were repeated for the leaves of Senna alata . The residue obtained was then discarded and the filterate was then concentrated to greenish brown gummy material, by evaporation to dryness at 45 0 C in a rotary evaporator ( Buchi-rotavapor ) Cele de mai sus au fost repetate de extragere a procedurilor de frunze de Senna alata. Obtinute de reziduuri a fost apoi aruncata filterate si apoi a fost concentrat la verzui maro material vascos, prin evaporare la uscaciune la 45 0 C intr-un evaporator rotativ (Buchi-rotavapor)

Phytochemical screening Phytochemical de screening

Methanol extracts of Bridelia ferruginea and Senna alata were subjected to screening procedure as described by Trease & Evans, (1985). Metanol extracte de Bridelia ferruginea alata Senna si au fost supuse unor proceduri de screening, dupa cum este descris de catre Evans, Trease &, (1985).

Statistical analysis Analiza statistica

All results are presented as mean + Toate rezultatele sunt prezentate ca medie + SEM . Data were analyzed by the student’s T-test and F-test. Groups for the pair of observations dependent upon each other. Results were considered statistically significant at P<0.05. . Datele au fost analizate de catre student's T-test si F-test. Grupuri de pereche de observatii dependente unul de altul. Rezultatele au fost considerate semnificative statistic la p <0,05.

Results Rezultate

Phytochemical screening of the methanol extract of Bridelia ferruginea revealed the presence of saponins , carbohydrates, tannins, polyphenols , steroids, triterpenes and alkaloids while methanol extract of Senna alata revealed the presence of flavonoids , carbohydrates, tannins, polyphenols , steroid triterpenes , and alkaloids. Phytochemical de screening de metanol extras din Bridelia ferruginea a relevat prezenta a saponins, hidrati de carbon, tannins, polifenoli, steroizi, in timp ce triterpenes si alcaloizi din metanol extras din alata Senna a relevat prezenta a flavonoids, hidrati de carbon, tannins, polifenoli, steroizi triterpenes, si alcaloizi. Thirty female albino rats were used in this study. The mean weight was 165 + 5.68g. The data was used for calculating and comparing significance of random plasma glucose before and after administration of extracts and the average data obtained from the determined concentration of plasma glucose, before and after extract administration. Comparison was made between day 7, and days 14 and 21 post extracts administration, as well as between the hyperglycemic and control groups. Treizeci de albinos femele de sobolan au fost folosite in acest studiu. Greutatea medie a fost de 165 + 5.68g. De date a fost utilizat pentru calcularea si compararea semnificatia aleatoare a glicemiei plasmatice, inainte si dupa administrarea de extracte de mediu si de datele obtinute de la determinata concentratia de glucoza plasmatica , Inainte si dupa administrarea extras. Comparatia a fost facuta intre ziua 7, si 14 si 21 de zile post extrase de administrare, precum si intre grupuri de hyperglycemic si de control.

The results in Table 2 showed comparison of random plasma glucose before and after administration of methanol extracts of Bridelia ferruginea . In normoglycemic group, the mean value was 142.20mg/dl at day 7; 121.00mg/dl at day 14 of experiment and 142.80mg/dl at day 21 posts extract administration. There was a statistically significant difference in glucose levels before and after extract administration (P<0.05). In the glucose induced hyperglycemic group, the value was 167.40mg/dl at day 7, 135.00mg/dl at day 14 and 166.00mg/dl at day 21 post extract administration. There was a statistically significant difference in glucose levels before and after administration (P<0.05). Rezultatele au aratat in Tabelul 2 de comparare a glicemiei plasmatice, aleator, inainte si dupa administrarea de extracte de metanol Bridelia ferruginea. Normoglycemic In grup, de valoarea medie a fost de 7 zile de la 142.20mg/dl; 121.00mg/dl la 14 zile de experiment si 142.80mg / dl la 21 posturi de extract de zile de administrare. A fost o diferenta statistic semnificativa in nivelurile de glucoza, inainte si dupa administrarea extras (P <0,05). In glucoza indusa de hyperglycemic grup, valoarea a fost de 7 zile de la 167.40mg/dl, 135.00mg / dl la 14 zile si 166.00mg/dl la 21 zile dupa administrarea extras. A fost o diferenta statistic semnificativa in nivelurile de glucoza, inainte si dupa administrarea (P <0,05). The results in Table 3 showed the comparison of random plasma glucose before and after administration of methanol extract of Senna alata leaves. Rezultatele au aratat in Tabelul 3 de comparare a glicemiei plasmatice, aleator, inainte si dupa administrarea de metanol extras din frunze alata Senna.

In the normoglycemic group, the mean value was 117.80mg/dl at day 7; 119.00mg/dl at day 14 and 116.80mg/dl at day 21 posts extract administration. There was no significant difference in glucose level between pre and post extract administration (P>0.05). In normoglycemic grup, de valoarea medie a fost de 7 zile de la 117.80mg/dl; 119.00mg/dl la 14 zile si 21 zile 116.80mg/dl la posturile de extract de administrare. Nu a fost nici o diferenta semnificativa intre nivelul de glucoza in pre si post extract de administrare (P> 0,05).

In the glucose induced hyperglycemic group, the mean value was 141.00mg/dl at day 7, 138.20mg/dl at day 14 and 139.00mg/dl at day 21 post extract administration. There was no significant difference in glucose levels between pre and post extract administration (P>0.05). In glucoza indusa de hyperglycemic grup, de valoarea medie a fost de 7 zile de la 141.00mg/dl, 138.20mg/dl la 14 zile si 139.00mg/dl la 21 zile dupa administrarea extras. Nu a fost nici o diferenta semnificativa intre nivelurile de glucoza in pre si post extract de administrare (P> 0,05). In the control group, no extract was administered. The mean value was 115.60mg/dl at day 7, 114.00mg/dl at day 14 and 116.00mg/dl at day 21-post administration. There was no significant difference in plasma glucose levels (P>0.05). In grupul de control, nu a fost administrat extras. Valoare medie a fost de 7 zile de la 115.60mg/dl, 114.00mg/dl la 14 zile si 116.00mg/dl la 21 zile post-administrare. Nu a fost nici o diferenta semnificativa in glicemiei plasmatice (P> 0,05). The results in Table 4 also showed a comparison between the glucose induced hyperglycemic and control groups, after administration of Bridelia ferruginea extracts. There was a statistically significant change in both groups as well; (P<0.05) for the normoglycemic -control comparison, and for glucose induced hyperglycemic-control comparison (P<0.05). Rezultatele in Tabelul 4 a aratat de asemenea o comparatie intre hyperglycemic indusa de glucoza si de grupuri de control, dupa administrarea de extracte Bridelia ferruginea. A fost o schimbare semnificativa statistic in ambele grupuri, de asemenea; (P <0,05) pentru controlul normoglycemic-comparatie, si indusa de glucoza-hyperglycemic comparatie de control (P <0,05).

Discussion De discutii

Diabetes is a chronic illness that requires continuous monitoring and treatment. Diabetul zaharat este o boala cronica care necesita monitorizare continua si de tratament. To prevent acute complications and to reduce the risk of long-term complications the cost of life long treatment is tremendously increasing and effective preventive measures will be most fruitful in controlling the physical and financial burden of this disease ( Irobi & Daramola , 1994) Pentru a preveni complicatii acute si pentru a reduce riscul de complicatii pe termen lung a costurilor de tratament de lunga de viata este tot mai turbat eficiente masuri de prevenire si va fi cel mai fructuos in controlul fizic si financiara a acestei boli (Irobi & Daramola, 1994)

In a country like Nigeria, where the economy is depressed and average income can barely meet basic needs of life, compliance with treatment is poor ( Iwu , 1993). The anti-diabetes activities of these plant extracts could be due to the presence of tannins, polyphenols , steroids, triterpenes and alkaloids as revealed in the phytochemical screening. This study showed that Bridelia ferruginea probably reduces plasma glucose levels, an effect which is more pronounced in hyperglycemic states than in normoglycemic states. This is in agreement with the report of Ampofo (1977) and Iwu (1983) that aqueous extract of the leaves of Bridelia ferruginea had been shown to possess hypoglycemic activity. Intr-o tara ca Nigeria, in cazul in care economia este deprimat si venitul mediu abia pot satisface nevoile de baza ale vietii, respectarea tratamentului este de sarace (Iwu, 1993). Anti-diabet zaharat de activitati de aceste extracte vegetale ar putea fi datorita prezentei tannins , Polifenoli, steroizi, triterpenes si alcaloizi ca a evidentiat in phytochemical de screening. Acest studiu a aratat ca, probabil, Bridelia ferruginea reduce nivelurile plasmatice de glucoza, efect care este mai pronuntata in hyperglycemic state membre decat in normoglycemic. Aceasta este in acord cu raportul de Ampofo (1977) si Iwu (1983) ca apoase extras din frunze de Bridelia ferruginea a fost demonstrat de a poseda hypoglycemic activitate.

The plausible mechanism of action of these herbs are still unclear but may be thought to control blood glucose level by increasing glycolysis , and decreasing gluconeogenesis with a lower demand of pancreatic insulin. This is in consonance with the work done by Pari & Saravanan , (2004). Mechanisms such as the stimulating or regenerating effect of B-cells on extra pancreatic effects are proposed for the hypoglycemic action of Bridelia ferruginea . This finding is also in consonance with the work done by Saxena & Vikram , (2004). Senna alata was not found to possess hypoglycemic activity. There was no significant difference in glucose concentration before and after administration of the extract in all groups of rats. Plauzibil de mecanismul de actiune al acestor plante aromatice, sunt inca neclare, dar poate fi crezut ca pentru a controla nivelul glicemiei prin cresterea glycolysis, scade gluconeogeneza si cu o cerere de pancreatice mai mici de insulina. Aceasta este in consonanta cu munca efectuata de catre PARI & Saravanan, (2004 ). Mecanisme, cum ar fi efectul de stimulare sau regenerator de pe celulele B-pancreatice in plus efecte sunt propuse pentru a hypoglycemic actiune de Bridelia ferruginea. Aceasta constatare este, de asemenea, in consonanta cu munca efectuata de catre Saxena & Vikram, (2004). Senna a fost alata nu a fost gasit de a poseda hypoglycemic activitate. Nu a fost nici o diferenta semnificativa in concentratia de glucoza, inainte si dupa administrarea de extras, in toate grupele de sobolani.

Conclusion and recommendation Concluzii si recomandari

The results of this study suggest that Bridelia ferruginea bark extract achieved a reduction in plasma glucose levels especially in glucose induced hyperglycemic rats. This implies that the methanol extract has anti-diabetic properties and may thus be useful in the management and treatment of diabetes mellitus. Rezultatele acestui studiu sugereaza ca Bridelia ferruginea extract de scoarta realizat o reducere a glicemiei plasmatice, in special in nivelurile de glucoza indusa de hyperglycemic sobolani. Aceasta implica faptul ca in metanol extras are proprietati anti-diabetic, astfel, si poate fi util in gestionarea si tratarea pacientilor cu diabet zaharat.

Further study can be made by observing the effect of the extracts for a longer period of time after achieving alloxan -induced hyperglycemia. Also, the effects on other organs in the rat should be investigated through histological examination to eliminate adverse side effects or toxicity. Mai multe studii se poate face cu respectarea prevederilor efect de extrase pentru o perioada mai lunga de timp dupa atingerea alloxan induse de hiperglicemie. Asemenea, efecte asupra altor organe la sobolan ar trebui sa fie investigate prin examen histologic pentru a elimina adverse efecte secundare sau toxicitate.

Acknowledgement Confirmare

Special appreciation to the Head of Department of Virology, Speciale de apreciere de Sef al Catedrei de Virusologie, University Universitatea of al Ibadan Ibadan , for the use of their animal house in carrying out this study. , Pentru utilizarea lor a animalelor de casa, in desfasurarea acestui studiu.

References Referinte

Adeoye AO, Abaelu AM, Owumi CJ, Olukoya DK (1988): Antimicrobial activity of Bridelia ferruginea in; book of abstract of the symposium on drug production from natural products. Drug Res and Prod unit ; Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife . 24. Adeoye AO, Abaelu AM, Owumi CJ, Olukoya DK (1988): antimicrobieni de activitate in Bridelia ferruginea; carte de abstract a simpozionului de la productia de droguri de pe produsele naturale. Consumului de droguri si Res Prod unitate; Obafemi Awolowo Universitatea Ile-Deva. 24.

Airy, HK (1973): A dictionary of the flowering plants and ferns. Eight edition Aerisit, HK (1973): Un dictionar de inflorire a plantelor si ferns. Opt editie Cambridge , Universty Press. , Universty de presa. London Londra . 3-5. . 3-5.

Ampafo O (1977): Some clinical observations of the treatment of selected Diseases by Herbal preparation in; perspective in medicinal plant Research today; Drug Res prod unit : Ampafo O (1977): Unele observatii clinice de tratament a bolilor de plante selectate in pregatire; in perspectiva de plante medicinale de cercetare de azi; Drug Res Prod unitate:

Obafemi Obafemi Awolowo Awolowo University Universitatea . Ile-Ife . Pp 35-45. . Ile-Deva. Pp 35-45. De Bruyne T, Cimanga K, Pieters L, Claeys M, Dominisse R, Vlietinck A. De Bruyne T, Cimanga K, Pieters L, M Claeys, Dominisse R, Vlietinck a. (1997): Gallocaterchin (4---0---7) – Epigallocatechin ; A new Biflavonoid isolated from Bridelia ferruginea .  Nat Prod Let . (1997): Gallocaterchin (4 --- 0 --- 7) - Epigallocatechin; Un nou Biflavonoid izolate de la Bridelia ferruginea. Sa Nat Prod. 14: 285-292.

Gupta SS (1994): Prospects and perspectives of natural plants products in medicine: J pharmacol : 26: 1-12. Gupta SS (1994): perspective si perspective de plante naturale produse in medicina: J Pharmacol: 26: 1-12.



Irobi ON, Daramola SO (1994): Bactericidal properties of crude extracts of Mitracarpus villosus . Irobi PE, Daramola SO (1994): bactericid proprietati de titei extrase din Mitracarpus villosus. J Ethnopharmacol 42:  39-43. J Ethnopharmacol 42: 39-43.

Iwu MM (1983): The hypoglycaemic property of Bridelia ferruginea . Fitoterapia ( Iwu MM (1983): The hipoglicemice de proprietate Bridelia ferruginea. Fitoterapia ( Italy Italia ). 54(6): 243-248. ). 54 (6): 243-248.

Iwu MM (1984). Proceedings of 4 th Annual Conference of Iwu MM (1984). Proceedings of 4-a Conferinta anuala a Nigeria Society of Pharmocognosy . Societatea de Pharmocognosy. University Universitatea of al Nigeria , Nsukka , In; the State of Medicinal Plant Research in , Piatra Neamt, In; de membru al plantelor medicinale de Cercetare in Nigeria . Edited by Abayomi Sofowora . 57. . Editat de Abayomi Sofowora. 57.

Kilian HD, John K, Kraus LJ (1990): Detection of Anthranoids from “ Ganna Ganna ” (Cassia Species). Planta Med . 56: 562. Kilian HD, John K, LJ Kraus (1990): de detectare a Anthranoids de la 'Ganna Ganna' (Cassia specii). Planta Med. 56: 562.

Kim M, Kim SK, Park BN, Lee KH, Min GH, Seah JY, Park CG, Hwang ES, Cha CY and Kook YH, (1999): Antiviral effects of 28-Deacetylsendanin on herpes simplex virus-1 replication. Antiviral Res . Kim M, Kim SK, Park BN, Lee KH, min GH, Seah JY, Parcul CG, Hwang, ES, CY Cha si tacanit YH, (1999): efecte antivirale a 28-Deacetylsendanin pe herpes simplex virus-1 de replicare. Antivirala Res . 43: 103-112, 43: 103-112,

Kuma NG, Nair AM, Raghunandan VR (2001): Hypoglycemic effect of P. niruri Leaves in rabbits. Kerala J Vet. Sci .  48(4): 149-151. Kuma NG, Nair AM, Raghunandan VR (2001): Hypoglycemic efect de P. niruri pleaca in iepuri. Kerala J Vet. Sci. 48 (4): 149-151.

Marles RJ, Farnsworth N (1996): WHO DM: Report of a WHO study group.  Natural Protein. J Bot . Med . Marles JF, Farnsworth N (1996): DM OMS: Raport al unui grup de studiu OMS. Proteine naturale. J Bot. Med. (13): 85-135. (13): 85-135.

Marshall C (1951): Report on Forestry in American Semos , pacific science board, Nat. Res Council , Washington DC MimeoReport : Pp 1-3. Marshall C (1951): Raport privind silvicultura in Semos american, stiinta Pacific bord, Nat. Res Consiliului, Washington DC MimeoReport: Pp 1-3.

Mutasa SL, Khan MR, Tewers K (1990): 7-Methylphysicon and Cassiamin .A. from The Root Bark of Cassia singueana . Planta Med . 56. Mutasa SL, MR Khan, Tewers K (1990): 7-Methylphysicon si Cassiamin. A. de la radacina Ham de Cassia singueana. Planta Med. 56. 224.

Orafidiya LO, Lamikanra A, Adediji JA. Orafidiya LO, Lamikanra A, Adediji JA. (1990): Physiotherapy – Res ( (1990): Fizioterapie - Res ( United Kingdom Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii ). 1990. Vol.4 (5): 189-194. Vol.4 (5): 189-194.

Pari L, Ramakrishman R, Venkateswaran S (2001): Antihyperglycemic effect of Diamed , a herbal formulation, in experimental diabetes in Rats: J Pharmacol . Aug: 53(8): 1139-43. PARI L, R Ramakrishman, Venkateswaran S (2001): Antihyperglycemic efect de Diamed, o formulare din plante, in diabetul zaharat experimental la sobolan: J Pharmacol. August: 53 (8): 1139-43.

Pari L, Saravanan R (2004): Anti diabetic effect of Diasulin , a herbal drug on blood glucose in hyperglycemic rats; J Diabet Obes Met. Vol 6 (4): 286. PARI L, Saravanan R (2004): anti-diabetic efect de Diasulin, un drog de pe plante de glucoza in sange hyperglycemic sobolani; Diabet J Obes Met. Vol. 6 (4): 286.

Rashid MA, Gustafson KR, Cardellina JH, Boyd MR (2000): A new Podophyllotoxin Derivative form Bridelia ferruginea . Nat. prod . Rashid MA, Gustafson KR, Cardellina JH, Boyd MR (2000): O noua forma Podophyllotoxin derivate Bridelia ferruginea. Nat. Prod. Let , 14.2000: 285-292. Hai, 14.2000: 285-292.

Saxera A, Vikram NK (2004): Mechanism of action of some herbs of clinical interest. Un Saxera, Vikram NK (2004): Mecanism de actiune a unor ierburi de interes clinic. Indiana Indiana .J. pharm . . J. pharm. 2004; 29(5): 1129-1135. 2004; 29 (5): 1129-1135.

Trease K, Evans WC (1985): Phytochemical Screening. Trease K, WC Evans (1985): Phytochemical de verificare. Textbook of pharmacognosy .  12 th Edition, Balliere Tindall Publication, Manual de pharmacognosy. Editia a 12-a, Balliere Tindall Publicarea, London Londra . 537-541.

Trinder P, Barham D (1972): Procedure for glucose GOD- Trinder P, Barham D (1972): Procedura de glucoza-BUNA PAP with deproteinisation Analyst 1972; Randox . cu deproteinisation Analyst 1972; Randox. 97: 142. 97: 142.

Unwin N, Mugus S, Aspary T (1999): Tackling the emerging pandemic of non-communicable diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa: the essential NCO health intervention project. Public Health 29-107. Unwin N, S Mugus, Aspary T (1999): Abordarea problemelor legate de curs de pandemie de non-boli in Africa Subsahariana: NCO esentiale de sanatate proiect de interventie. Sanatate publica 29-107.

Yki – Jarvinan H (2001): Combination therapies with insulin in type II DM. Diabetes Care . 24(4): 758-67. Yki - Jarvinan H (2001): Asocierea cu insulina in terapii de tip II DM. Diabet zaharat de ingrijire. 24 (4): 758-67.

Table 1. Phytochemical screening of the methanol extracts (ME) of Senna alata and Bridelia ferruginea . Tabelul 1. Phytochemical de screening de metanol extrase (ME) de Bridelia Senna alata si ferruginea.

Senna alata Senna alata

Bridelia ferruginea Bridelia ferruginea

Compound tested Compusul testat

Test Testa

Observation De observare a

Inference Inferenta

Flavonoids Flavonoids

Saponins Saponins

Anthraquinones Anthraquinones

Lipids Lipide

Carbohydrates Carbohidrati

Reducing sugar Reducerea de zahar

Tannins/ Polyphenols Tannins / polifenoli

Steroids I. Steroizi I.

Steroids/ triterpenes II. Steroizi / triterpenes II.

Alkaloids I. Alcaloizi I.

Alkaloids II. Alcaloizi II.

Alkaloids Alcaloizi III .

Shibata’s reaction. Shibata de reactie.

Lead acetate test. Acetat de plumb de test.

Sodium hydroxide test. Hidroxid de sodiu de test.

Mineral acid test. Minerale de acid de test.

Boric acid test Acid boric de test

Frothing test Frothing de test

Borntrager’s test Borntrager de test

Universal reagent Universal reactiv

Molisch’s test Molisch de test

Barfoed’s test Barfoed de test

Fehling’s solution A and B De solutie Fehling A si B

Ferric chloride test. Feric de clorura de test.

Salkowski test Salkowski de test

Liebermann- Burchard’s Liebermann-lui Burchard

Dragendorff’s reagent Dragendorff de reactiv

Mayer’s reagent Mayer de reactiv

Wagner’s reagent Wagner de reactiv

Orange-pink colouration Portocaliu-roz colouration

Whitish-yellow colouration Galben-albicios colouration

Yellowish colouration Galbui colouration

Orange-yellow colouration Portocaliu-galben colouration

Yellowish colouration Galbui colouration

Frothing on warming Frothing pe de incalzire

No reddish colouration Nu roscat colouration

No red colouration Nu rosu colouration

Reddish brown colouration at the interface of the two liquids. Reddish maro colouration la interfata dintre cele doua lichide.

No brick red precipitates Nu de caramida rosie precipitatii

No reddish precipitate Nu se arunca cu capul roscat

Bluish-green colouration Verde-albastriu colouration

Reddish-brown at the interface of the two liquids. Maro-roscat, la interfata dintre cele doua lichide.

Reddish-brown ring with bluish-green upper layer. Maro-roscat cu inel verde-albastriu strat superior.

Reddish-brown Maro-roscat

Precipitate Precipita

Yellowish-white precipitate Precipitat alb-galbui

Reddish-brown colouration Ursiu colouration

flavonoids present flavonoids prezent



'

'

'

'

saponins absent saponins absent

anthraquinones absent anthraquinones absent

Lipid absent Lipidice absent

Carbohydrates present Carbohidrati prezent

Reducing sugars absent Reducerea zaharuri absent

'

Tannins and polyphenols faintly present Tannins polifenoli cu voce slaba si prezent

Steroids present Steroizi prezent

Steroids/ triterpenes present Steroizi / triterpenes prezent

Alkaloids moderately present Alcaloizi moderat prezent

Alkaloids moderately present Alcaloizi moderat prezent

'

Absent

'

'

'

'

Moderately present Moderat prezent

Absent

Absent

Present Cadou

Absent

'

Present Cadou

Moderately present Moderat prezent

Moderately present Moderat prezent

Present Cadou

Present Cadou

Present Cadou

Table 2. Random plasma glucose of rats at pre and post administration of methanol extract of Bridelia ferruginea bark. Tabelul 2. Aleatorie a glicemiei plasmatice, de la sobolani, administrarea de pre si post de metanol extras din Bridelia ferruginea scoarta.

Parameters Parametri

Day 7 Ziua 7

Day 14 Ziua 14

Day 21 Ziua 21

f f

P P

Normoglycemic Normoglycemic

142.00 + 6.22 142,00 + 6,22

121.00 + 8.00 121,00 + 8,00

142.80 + 5.81 142,80 + 5,81

16.96

0.00 (s) 0.00 (s)

Glucose induced hyperglycemic Indusa de glucoza hyperglycemic

167.00 + 5.68 167,00 + 5,68

135.00 + 10.59 135,00 + 10,59

166.00 + 4.69 166,00 + 4,69

30.26

0.00 (s) 0.00 (s)

Control De control

121.60 + 2.41 121,60 + 2,41

120.60 + 3.13 120,60 + 3,13

124.40 + 3.29 124,40 + 3,29

2.21

0.51 (ns) 0.51 (ns)

Key: s-significant, ns-not significant Cheie: e-semnificative, nu-ns semnificative

Table 3. Random plasma glucose of rats at pre and post administration of methanol extract of Senna alata leaves. Tabelul 3. Aleatorie a glicemiei plasmatice, de la sobolani, administrarea de pre si post de metanol extras din frunze alata Senna.

Parameters Parametri

Day 7 Ziua 7

Day 14 Ziua 14

Day 21 Ziua 21

f f

P P

Normoglycemic Normoglycemic

117.80 + 11.83 117,80 + 11,83

119.00 + 11.92 119,00 + 11,92

116.80 + 9.34 116,80 + 9,34

0.05

0.95

Glucose induced hyperglycemic Indusa de glucoza hyperglycemic

141.00 + 4.95 141,00 + 4,95

138.20 + 3.27 138,20 + 3,27

139.00 + 2.35 139,00 + 2,35

0.77

0.99

Control De control

115.60 + 10.60 115,60 + 10,60

114.00 + 8.22 114,00 + 8,22

116.00 + 8.72 116,00 + 8,72

0.07

0.07

Table 4. Comparison of significance between normoglycemic and control rats, at post administration of Bridelia ferruginea extract. Tabelul 4. Comparatie intre normoglycemic de semnificatie si de control de sobolan, la postul de administrare Bridelia ferruginea extras.

Parameters Parametri

X X

SD SD

t t

P P

Normoglycemic Control Normoglycemic de control

13.13

12.08

4.21

0.00

Glucose induced hyperglycemic Control Indusa de glucoza hyperglycemic de control

33.93

15.82

8.31

0.00

X = Mean   P < 0.05: - Significant at 5% confidence X Media = P <0,05: - semnificative de la 5% de incredere

SD = Standard deviation interval DS = Deviatia standard interval de

t = T test P > 0.05:- Not significant. t = T de test P> 0.05: - Nu semnificativ.

f = F test f = F de test









Politica de confidentialitate

.com Copyright © 2019 - Toate drepturile rezervate.
Toate documentele au caracter informativ cu scop educational.


Proiecte

vezi toate proiectele
 PROIECT DE LECTIE Clasa: I Matematica - Adunarea si scaderea numerelor naturale de la 0 la 30, fara trecere peste ordin
 Proiect didactic Grupa: mijlocie - Consolidarea mersului in echilibru pe o linie trasata pe sol (30 cm)
 Redresor electronic automat pentru incarcarea bateriilor auto - proiect atestat
 Proiectarea instalatiilor de alimentare ale motoarelor cu aprindere prin scanteie cu carburator

Lucrari de diploma

vezi toate lucrarile de diploma
 Lucrare de diploma - eritrodermia psoriazica
 ACTIUNEA DIPLOMATICA A ROMANIEI LA CONFERINTA DE PACE DE LA PARIS (1946-1947)
 Proiect diploma Finante Banci - REALIZAREA INSPECTIEI FISCALE LA O SOCIETATE COMERCIALA
 Lucrare de diploma managementul firmei “diagnosticul si evaluarea firmei”

Lucrari licenta

vezi toate lucrarile de licenta
 CONTABILITATEA FINANCIARA TESTE GRILA LICENTA
 LUCRARE DE LICENTA - FACULTATEA DE EDUCATIE FIZICA SI SPORT
 Lucrare de licenta stiintele naturii siecologie - 'surse de poluare a clisurii dunarii”
 LUCRARE DE LICENTA - Gestiunea stocurilor de materii prime si materiale

Lucrari doctorat

vezi toate lucrarile de doctorat
 Doctorat - Modele dinamice de simulare ale accidentelor rutiere produse intre autovehicul si pieton
 Diagnosticul ecografic in unele afectiuni gastroduodenale si hepatobiliare la animalele de companie - TEZA DE DOCTORAT
 LUCRARE DE DOCTORAT ZOOTEHNIE - AMELIORARE - Estimarea valorii economice a caracterelor din obiectivul ameliorarii intr-o linie materna de porcine

Proiecte de atestat

vezi toate proiectele de atestat
 Proiect atestat informatica- Tehnician operator tehnica de calcul - Unitati de Stocare
 LUCRARE DE ATESTAT ELECTRONIST - TEHNICA DE CALCUL - Placa de baza
 ATESTAT PROFESIONAL LA INFORMATICA - programare FoxPro for Windows
 Proiect atestat tehnician in turism - carnaval la venezia

Structura spermatozoidului
BIODIVERSITATEA sau Diversitatea biologica
Aparatul digestiv
INTESTINUL GROS
APARATUL GENITAL FEMININ
Familia Belonidae
PARTICULARITATILE ANATOMO-FIZIOLOGICE ALE SUGARULUI SI COPILULUI
Increngatura Ctenaria



Termeni si conditii
Contact
Creeaza si tu