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Prepozitia, conjunctia, numeralul

Prepozitia, conjunctia, numeralul



Prepozitia, conjunctia, numeralul

    1 Prepozitia
    2 Conjunctia
    3 Numeralul

  

Prepozitia (The Preposition)

Prepozitiile sunt cuvinte invariabile carora le lipseste autonomia sintactica si care se comporta ca elemente subordonate intr-o propozitie.

Clasificarea prepozitiilor (Classification of Prepositions
Exista trei criterii de clasificare a prepozitiilor:
1) dupa forma
2) dupa continut
3) dupa caz

Doar primele doua criterii sunt relevante pentru studiul prepozitiilor din limba engleza.

1) Dupa forma prepozitiile se clasifica astfel :

a) Prepozitii simple : by (cu, de catre), for (pentru), from (din, de la), in (in), of (de), on (pe), to (la, catre), with (cu), despite (in ciuda)
ex.: She arrived by train. (Ea a sosit cu trenul.)
       I put the flowers in a vase on the table. (Am pus florile intr-o vaza pe masa.)



b) Prepozitii compuse, se obtin prin unirea a doua cuvinte: alongside (pe langa), into (inauntrul), onto (pe), outside (in afara), throughout (de la un capat la celalalt), upon (pe, peste), underneath (sub), within (in, in cadrul), without (fara)

ex.: You will have to manage without me. (Va trebui sa te descurci fara mine.)
     Come into the garden. (Vino in gradina.)

c) Prepozitii complexe, obtinute prin combinarea adverbelor / prepozitiilor / conjunctiilor cu prepozitii: along with (impreuna cu), as for (in ceea ce priveste), as to (in ceea ce priveste), because of (din cauza), down to (pana la, pana in), except for (in afara de), from among (dintre), from inside (dinauntrul), in between (printre), instead of (in loc de), out of (in afara de), round about (primprejurul), up to (pana la)

ex.: Take all the luggage except for that little black purse. (Ia tot bagajul in afara de       geanta aceea mica, neagra.)
      She followed the narrow path, down to the big gray rocks by the sea. (Ea urmari       cararea ingusta, pana la stancile mari, cenusii de la marginea marii.)

d) Locutiuni prepozitionale, obtinute de cele mai multe ori prin combinarea prepozitiilor cu substantive: in accordannce with (in concordanta cu, conform cu), by means of (prin intermediul), by virtue of (datorita), due to (datorita), in front of (in fata), in addition to (in plus fata de), in the middle of (in mijlocul), in view of (avand in vedere), in common with (la fel cu), in spite of (in ciuda), on account of (datorita), thanks to (multumita), with a view to (in scopul) etc.

ex.: Thanks to his intervention, they left the country. (Multumita interventiei lui, ei au        parasit tara.)
      Don't you dare ring me up in the middle of the night! (Sa nu indraznesti sa ma suni       in toiul noptii!)

2) Dupa continut clasificarea se face astfel:

a) prepozitii cu un continut semantic concret cum ar fi: at (la), in (in), on (pe), round (in jurul), through (prin), to (la)

b) prepozitii cu un continut semantic abstract cum ar fi : as for (in ceea ce priveste), of (de, despre), because of (din cauza), about (despre)

 

a) Prepozitiile cu un continut semantic concret indica relatiile de spatialitate. Astfel, avem:

o Prepozitii de loc: at (la), away from (departe de), from (din, de la), in (in), off (in afara), on (in, pe)
ex.: She comes from Paris. (Ea vine de la Paris.)
He spent the whole day on the lake, fishing. (El si-a petrecut toata ziua pe lac, pescuind.)

o Prepozitii care sugereaza destinatia: from(de), into (in), onto (pe), to (pana la)
ex.: There is a long way to my grandma's. (Este drum lung pana la bunica.)
My home is a few miles from the railway station. (Casa mea este la cateva mile de calea ferata.)

o Prepozitii care sugereaza pozitia relativa: behind (in spatele), in front of (in fata), under (sub)
ex.: There is a dog behind that tree. (Este un caine in spatele copacului aceluia.)
Have you seen the nest under the wood pile? (Ai vazut cuibul de sub gramada de lemne?)

o Prepozitii care sugereaza destinatia relativa: from (de la, din), to (la), on (to) (pe la), in (in) etc.
ex.: He comes from the South. (El vine din sud.)

 

b) Prepozitiile cu un continut semantic abstract indica relatiile de temporalitate

o Prepozitii de timp : at (la), in (la), on (la), before (inainte de ), until (pana)
ex.: Come to me at five o'clock! (Vino la mine la ora cinci!)
If you cannot make it on time, do not bother to come at all. (Daca nu poti sa vii la timp, nu te mai obosi sa vii deloc.)
I will be there in ten minutes. (Voi fi acolo in zece minute.)
Come before noon. (Vino inainte de amiaza.)

o Prepozitii care arata durata: for (timp de), through (de …pana))
ex: He was out of the country for three months. (El a lipsit din tara timp de trei luni.)

o Prepozitii care arata succesiunea in timp: after (dupa), from (de la), since (de la, din)
ex.: He lived here since his mother's death. (El a locuit aici de la moartea mamei lui.)

 

Atentie! Urmatoarele cuvinte nu sunt prepozitii, ci adverbe: downstairs (jos, la parter), downtown (in oras), upstairs (sus, la etaj), uptown (in centru). Ele nu sunt urmate de nici un substantiv

ex: She climbed upstairs. (Ea a urcat la etaj.)

Cuvinte ca inside, outside, beneath, behind, under etc pot fi si adverbe, si prepozitii (cand sunt urmate de substantiv).

ex: He disappeared inside. (El disparu inauntru.) - adverb
He disappeared inside the big old house. (El disparu in casa mare si veche.)
- prepozitie




Cele mai utilizate prepozitii din limba engleza sunt prezentate mai jos:

About (despre); Beside (pe langa); Inside (in, in interiorul); Plus (plus)

Above (deasupra, peste); Between (intre); In spite of (in ciuda); Prior to (anterior)

According to (conform cu); Instead of (in loc de); Regarding (in ceea ce priveste)

Across (peste, de-a curmezisul); Beyond (dincolo de); Into (in); Respecting (privind)

After (dupa); But (afara de); In the midst of (in mijlocul); Round (in jurul, dupa

Against (contra, impotriva); By (langa, aproape de); In the middle of (in mijlocul); Round about (imprejurul)

Ahead of (inaintea); Concerning (in ceea ce priveste, despre); Save (in afara de)

Along (de-a lungul, pe); Considering (cu privire la); Like (ca); Since (de la, din)

Despite (in ciuda); Minus (minus); Through (prin, pe)

Alongside (alaturi de); Down (in josul); Near (langa, aproape)

Amid(st) (in mijlocul); Due to(din cauza); Next (langa, aproape de); Throughout (in tot cuprinsul, peste tot in)

Among(st) (printre); During (in timpul); Notwithstanding (in ciuda); Till (pana la)

Apart from (independent de); Ere (inainte); Off (de pe, din); To (la, catre, spre)

Around (in jurul); Except (fara); On (pe, in, la)

As (in calitate de); Excepting (fara); On account of (din cauza); Toward(s) (spre, catre)

At (la, in, de la); Excluding (fara); Under (sub, in)

Opposite (vizavi de); Underneath (sub)

For (pentru); Out of (in afara); Until (pana la); Because of (din cauza)

From (din, de la); Outside (in afara); Up (in susul)

Before (in fata, dinaintea); In (in); Over (peste); Upon (pe)

Behind (in urma, dupa); In addition to (in plus fata de); Owing to (datorita); Up to (pana la)

Below (sub, dedesubtul); Including (si, inclusiv); Past (pe langa, dincolo de); With (cu)

Beneath (sub); In front of (in fata); Pending (in timpul); Within (inauntrul, in)

Beside (langa, alaturi de); In lieu of (in locul); Without (fara)


Verbe + Prepozitii


Exista o serie de verbe care cer anumite prepozitii. Astfel:

Agree on something (a cadea de accord asupra a ceva), dar:
Agree with somebody (a cadea de accord cu cineva)
Charge with (a acuza de)
Live for (a trai pentru)
Provide for somebody (a face ceea ce este necesar pentru cineva, a intretine pe cineva)
Approve of somebody (a aproba pe cineva)
Decide on (a se hotari asupra)
Result from (a rezulta din)
Ask for (a cere, a se interesa de)
Excuse from (a scuti de)
Talk about (a vorbi despre)
Bring up (a creste, a educa)
Grow up (a creste, a educa)
Work for (a munci pentru)

De asemenea, exista unele substantive care formeaza expresii fixe cu anumite prepozitii: by train (cu trenul), by car (cu masina), by plane (cu avionul), at work (la munca), in jail (in inchisoare), in bed (in pat), on foot (pe jos), on earth (pe pamant), at present (in prezent), in the end (in cele din urma, in final), at the same time (in acelasi timp)

 

 

 

Conjunctia (The Conjunction)

In gramatica limbii engleze, conjunctiile formeaza o clasa de cuvinte invariabile fara autonomie sintactica si semantica. Conjunctiile stabilesc relatia de coordonare sau de subordonare intre doua sau mai multe propozitii in cadrul frazei.

Clasificarea conjunctiilor (Classification of conjunctions
Din punct de vedere al structurii formale conjunctiile se clasifica in: conjunctii simple, conjunctii compuse, locutiuni conjunctionale.

1) Conjunctii simple, compuse dintr-un singur cuvant : and (si, iar), but (dar), that (ca), as (deoarece, ca), for (pentru ca), because (deoarece), although (desi), whereas (intrucat), etc.

And si but unesc intotdeauna doua sau mai multe propozitii coordonate.
ex.: John went to work and Mary staid home. (John a plecat la munca iar Mary a ramas acasa.)
John went to work but Mary staid home. (John a plecat la munca dar Mary a ramas acasa.)
Mary staid home because she was sick. (Mary a ramas acasa pentru ca era bolnava.) - because uneste propozitia principala Mary staid home cu propozitia subordonata cauzala she was sick.



2) Conjunctii compuse din doua conjunctii sau conjunctii cu adverbe: as if (ca si cum), as though (ca si cum), so that (asa ca, astfel incat), as soon as (imediat ce
ex.: He looked at me as if I were an alien. (S-a uitat la mine de parca as fi fost un extraterestru.)
Put your sunglasses on, so that the sun does not bother you. (Pune-ti ochelarii de soare, asa incat soarele sa nu te deranjeze.)


3) Locutiuni conjunctionale: in order that (pentru ca, ca sa), on condition that (cu conditia sa/ca), in case (that) (in caz ca), supposing (that) (in caz ca), etc
ex.: Supposing that he does not come, what will you do? (In caz ca el nu vine, ce ai sa faci?)
I will help you on condition that you leave Jeanie alone. (Te ajut cu conditia sa o lasi in pace pe Jeanie.)


 

Conjunctiile mai pot fi impartite si in

a) Conjunctii de maniera: as (ca), as far as (dupa cum), as if (ca si cum), although (desi)
ex.: As far as I can see, you are pretty lazy. (Dupa cum vad, esti destul de lenes.)

b) Conjunctii de timp: after (dupa ce), as long as (atata vreme cat), as soon as (de indata ce), before (inainte sa), since (de cand), till (pana cand), until (pana cand), while (in vreme ce) etc
ex.: Since he moved to another town, she has been sad most of the time. (De cand el s-a mutat in alt oras, ea a fost trista mai tot timpul.)
Until we meet again, take care of yourself. (Pana ne vom intalni din nou, ai grija de tine.)
Let us take a walk before you go home. (Hai sa ne plimbam inainte sa pleci acasa.)


Atentie!
A nu se confunda conjunctiile, care introduc propozitii, cu prepozitiile, care introduc substantive!
ex: Before you go, help me with my homework. (Inainte sa pleci, ajuta-ma la teme.) - conjunctie
Come see me before noon. (Vino sa ma vezi inainte de amiaza.) - prepozitie
I would like to read this novel but I do not know French. (As vrea sa citesc acest roman dar nu stiu frantuzeste.) - conjunctie
All came but Mary. (Au venit toti in afara de Mary.) - prepozitie

c) Conjunctii de cauza: as (deoarece, cum), because (deoarece), since (de vreme ce), seeing(that) (pentru ca), considering(that) (fiindca), now that (intrucat, acum ca).
ex.: Now that all is said and done between us, we should part. (Acum ca totul a fost spus intre noi, ar trebui sa ne despartim.)
Since you cannot stand me, why do you invite me to your party? (De vreme ce nu ma poti suferi, de ce ma inviti la petrecerea ta?)
As she was not ready, I left without her. (Deoarece nu era gata, am plecat fara ea.)

d) Conjunctii de concesie: although (desi), though (desi), even if (chiar daca), notwithstanding that (cu toate ca), in spite of the fact that (in ciuda faptului ca).
ex.: Although you are my brother, I do not agree with you. (Desi esti fratele meu, nu sunt de accord cu tine.)

e) Conjunctii de rezultat: so that (asa ca), that (astfel ca/incat), so (deci
ex.: So you do not want to see me again! (Deci nu vrei sa ma mai vezi!)
I did not have the time to talk to her, so that she left. (Nu am avut timp sa vorbesc cu ea, asa ca a plecat.)


f) Conjunctii finale (de scop): so that (ca sa, asa incat), in order that (astfel incat), that (incat), lest (ca sa nu), for the purpose that (astfel incat
ex.: Paul came to my place so that I help him. (Paul a venit la mine acasa ca sa il ajut.)
She took her umbrella, lest the rain should soak her wet. (Si-a luat umbrela, ca sa nu o ude ploaia pina la piele.)

g) Conjunctii conditionale: if (daca), unless (daca nu), provided (that) (cu conditia ca), supposing (that) (presupunand ca), on condition that (cu conditia ca), in case (daca), etc.
ex.: If you are my friend, why don't you help me (Daca esti prietenul meu, de ce nu ma ajuti?)

h) Conjunctii de comparatie: as…as (la fel de…precum), not so….as (nu atat de …incat, dupa cum), than (decat), as if /though (ca si cum).
ex.: He old teacher was not as severe to his pupils as he was said to be. (Batranul professor nu era asa de sever cu elevii lui precum se spunea ca ar fi.)
There were more guests than she had told me. (Erau mai multi oaspeti decat imi spusese ea.)

 

 

Numeralul (The Numeral)

 

Clasificarea numeralelor (Classification of Numerals)

Numeralele se clasifica astfel:
1) Numerale cardinale
2) Numerale ordinale
3) Numerale colective
4) Numerale fractionale
5) Numerale multiplicative
6) Numerale distributive
7) Numerale adverbiale

1) Numeralele cardinale formeaza nucleele din care deriva celelalte subclase.
0 zero, nought, naught
1 one
2 two
3 three
4 for
5 five
6 six
7 seven
8 eight
9 nine
10 ten

11 eleven
12 twelve
13 thirteen
14 fourteen
15 fifteen
16 sixteen
17 seventeen
18 eighteen
19 nineteen
20 twenty

21 twenty-one
22 twenty-two
23 twenty-three
30 thirty
40 forty
50 fifty
60 sixty
70 seventy
80 eighty
90 ninety
100 one hundred



101 one hundred and one
500 five hundred
1000 one thousand
5231 five thousand two hundred and thirty-one
100.000 one hundred thousand
500.000 five hundred thousand
1.000.000 one million
000.000 five million(s
7.000.000 seven million (s)
7.000.001 seven million and one

1.000.000.000 a/one thousand million
1.000.000.000.000 a/one billion
1.000.000.000.000.000 a/one thousand billion(s)
1+18 zerouri: a/one trillion
1+24 zerouri: a/one quadrillion
1+30 zerouri: a/one quintillion

ex.: She was forty-six years old when I met her. (Ea avea patruzeci si sase de ani cand am cunoscut-o.)

Atentie! Daca o constructie de tipul celei de mai sus - forty-six years old - determina un substantiv, years nu va mai fi la plural, ci la singular
ex: She was a forty-six year old lady when I met her. (Ea era o doamna (in varsta) de patruzeci si sase de ani cand am cunoscut-o.)

Observati ca expresia a avea X ani se traduce prin to be X years old, si nu prin to have X years!

 

2) Numeralele ordinale indica pozitia intr-un sir
1st - the first (primul, prima)
13th - the thirteenth (a/al treisprezecelea)
2nd - the second (al doilea, a doua)
3rd - the third (al treilea, a treia)
20th - the twentieth (al douazecilea, a douazecea)
4th - the fourth (al patrulea, a patra)
5th - the fifth (al cincilea, a cincea)
30th - the thirtieth (al treizecilea)
6th - the sixth (al saselea)
7th - the seventh (al saptelea)
50th - the fiftieth (al cincizecilea)
8th - the eighth (al optulea)
9th - the ninth (al noualea)
100th - the one hundredth (al o suta-lea)
10th - the tenth (al zecelea)
11th - the eleventh (al unsprezecelea)
12th - the twelfth (al doisprezecelea)

In afara de the 1st (the first), the 2nd (the second) si the 3rd (the third), restul numeralelor ordinale se formeaza adaugand th la numeralul cardinal corespunzator: the 5th (the fifth) - al cincilea, the 65th (the sixty-fifth) - al saizeci si cincilea.

Acelasi model il urmeaza si numeralele ordinale de la 20 in sus: the 21st (the twenty-first = al douazeci si unulea), the 22nd (the twenty-second = al douazeci si doilea), the 23rd (the twenty-third = al douazeci si treilea), the 24th (the twenty-fourth = al douazeci si patrulea).
ex.: I was the 78th (the seventy-eighth) in line. (Eu am fost al saptezeci si optulea la rand.)
He is the 90th (the ninetieth) winner of this prize. (El este al nouazecilea castigator al acestui premiu.)

Numeralele cardinale care se termina in y il vor transforma in ie, dupa care se va adauga th: seventy - the seventieth, forty - the fortieth.
Retineti: four (patru) - fourteen (paisprezece) - forty (patruzeci - dispare vocala u)!


3) Numeralele colective sunt expresii nominale ale unor cantitati numerice cu plural invariabil.
12 = a dozen (o duzina
24 = two dozen (doua duzini)
20 = a score,
40 = two score,
50 = two score and ten,
60 = three score
144 = a/one gross,
288 = two gross

ex.: I bought a dozen eggs. (Am cumparat o duzina de oua.)


4) Numeralele fractionale sunt impartite de obicei in fractii obisnuite si fractii decimale
numarator/numitor,
1/3 = a/one third (o treime),
2/3 = two thirds (doua treimi
1/5 = a/one fifth (o cincime)
2/6 = two sixths (doua sesimi)
5/12 = five twelfths (cinci doisprezecimi)
ex.: One third of the dozen eggs I bought yesterday were rotten. (O treime din duzina de oua pe care le-am cumparat ieri erau stricate.)

Fractiile decimale se scriu cu punct.
3.75 = three point seventy-five
ex.: His mark is 8.50 (eight point fifty). (Nota lui este 8.50.)

5) Numeralele multiplicative arata proportia in care s-a marit o cantitate
:
double (dublu),
treble /triple (triplu),
quadruple (de patru ori),
quintuple(de cinci ori)
twofold (dublu),
threefold (triplu),
fourfold (de patru ori),
fivefold (de cinci ori)
once (o data),
twice/two times (de doua ori),
thrice / three times (de trei ori),
four times(de patru ori)
ex: Her wages increased five times since she was promoted. (Salariul ei a crescut de cinci ori de cand a fost promovata.)

Numeralele multiplicative terminate in -fold functioneaza ca determinanti, semanand cu adjectivele
ex.: There has been a twofold increase in wages. (Salariile s-au marit de doua ori. / A fost o crestere salariala dubla.)


6) Numeralele distributive exprima distributia in spatiu si timp a obiectelor pe grupe, fiecare avand acelasi numar de articole:
by twos (cate doi), by threes (cate trei) etc
in twos/in pairs (cate doi/pe perechi), in threes (cate trei) etc
one by one (unul cate unul), two by two (doi cate doi) etc
one at a time (cate unul pe rand), two at a time (cate doi pe rand) etc
ex.: The kindergarten children were walking by twos. (Copii de gradinita mergeau cate doi.)
Talk one at a time, please, I cannot understand what you are saying! (Vorbiti cate unul pe rand, va rog, nu inteleg ce spuneti!)



7) Numeralele adverbiale exprima frecventa unei actiuni.
once (o singura data), twice /two times (de doua ori), three times /thrice (poetic) (de trei ori), four times (de patru ori), five times (de cinci ori), etc.
ex.: Think twice before you get angry and offend somebody. (Gandeste-te de doua ori inainte de a te infuria si de a jigni pe cineva.)
Four times I told you to stop, but you did not listen to me. (De patru ori ti-am spus sa te opresti, dar nu m-ai ascultat.)





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