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Adverbul - the adverb

Adverbul - the adverb



ADVERBUL

THE ADVERB

Definitie. Partea de vorbire care:

a) arata o caracteristica a unei actiuni, a unei stari sau a unei calitati;

b) poate avea categoria gramaticala a comparatiei.


Adverbele pot determina:

un verb

Ex: He was shining brightly. El radia de stralucire.

un adjectiv

Ex: He is extremely sad at the sin of his people. El este extrem de trist din cauza pacatului poporului sau.

un alt adverb

Ex: He is moving very quietly. Se misca foarte incet.

CLASIFICAREA ADVERBELOR

In limba engleza, clasificarea adverbelor se face:

A)   Dupa forma

B)    Dupa continut (sens lexical)

A)   Din punctul de vedere al formei, exista urmatoarele tipuri de adverbe:

adverbe simple

adverbe compuse

adverbe derivate

locutiuni adverbiale

constructii adverbiale

Adverbele simple pot fi:

a)     Adverbe care au aceeasi forma cu adjectivele sau substantivele de la care s-au format: early, fast, hard, long, straight, well, home, east, west etc.

Ex: The Lord will provide the early rain. (adj.) Domnul va procura ploaie timpurie.

He will come home early. (adv.) El va veni acasa devreme.

They gave this little orphan a home. (noun) Ei I-au oferit acestui mic orfan un camin.

b)     Adverbe care au forma diferita de a celorlalte parti de vorbire: so, too, only, ago, ever, always, often, quite, very.

Ex: He often shares about his faith. El impartaseste deseori despre credinta lui.

Have you ever heard Billy Graham speak? L-ai ascultat vreodata pe Billy Graham vorbind?

Adverbele compuse sunt formate prin compunere din alte parti de vorbire:

a) adjectiv + substantiv

ADJ + N - midway, meantime, sometimes.

b)     Adjectiv + adverb

ADJ + ADV – somewhere, anywhere, everywhere, nowhere.

c)     un adverb + un substantiv

ADV + N – outside, indoors.

d)     un adverb + un alt adverb

ADV + ADV

e) un adverb + prepozitie

ADV + PREP. – hereof, hereby

3) Adverbele derivate s-au format prin afixatie:

a)     cu prefixe din:

- substantive: Prefix + N/ ADJ – across, away, along, asleep, besides, aloud, below.

b)     cu sufixe din:

substantive: N + SUFFIX – daily, weekly, monthly, yearly.

adjective: ADJ + SUFFIX – easily, badly, kindly, perfectly, slowly

participii: V3/ V-ing + SUFFIX – supposedly, surprisingly.

numerale: NUM + SUFFIX – firstly, doubly.

pronume: PRON + SUFFIX – here, there, where

OBSERVATIE

Unele adverbe au doua forme: o forma identica cu cea a adjectivului si o alta derivata cu sufixul –ly.

Intre acestea pot fi deosebiri de utilizare: formele simple sunt folosite in sens concret sau in comparatii, iar cele derivate cu sufixul –ly in sens abstract.

close – closely easy – easily



dear – dearly slow – slowly

plain – plainly wrong – wrongly

Ex: He was living close to a church. El locuia langa o biserica.

They examined this new doctrine closely. Ei au examinat noua doctrina cu atentie.

He came as quick as possible. (comparativ) El a venit cat de repede a putut.

He departed quickly. (concret) El a plecat repede.

Altele pot avea mari diferente de sens.

hard – din greu hardly – abia, nu prea

high – sus highly – extrem de

fair – corect fairly – destul de

last – ultima data lastly – in sfarsit

Ex: He works hard to become a missionary. Munceste din greu pentru a deveni misionar.

He hardly works at all. El nu prea mai munceste.

She never comes home late. Ea nu vine niciodata acasa tarziu.

She hasn’t come to see us lately. Ea nu a mai venit sa ne vada in ultima vreme.

Jock lives near us. Jock locuieste langa noi.

Coming from his office he nearly broke his arm. Venind de la serviciu, aproape si-a rupt mana.

4) Locutiuni si constructii adverbiale

Locutiunile adverbiale sunt expresii fixe cu valoare de adverbe: at present, as a rule, by the way, as a matter of fact, at once, once in a while, now and then, to and fro.

Ex: At present, there is a missionary base in our city. In momentul de fata exista o baza misionara in orasul nostru.

5) Constructiile adverbiale sunt constructii prepozitionale care pot fi folosite ca adverbe: at night, at dawn, in the morning, with grace, with ease, with difficulty etc.

Ex.: He watches TV in the evening. El se uita la TV seara.

She went out of the room. Ea a plecat din camera.

Unele constructii adverbiale se folosesc:

a) cand nu se pot forma adverbe de la adjectiv.

Ex.: She spoke with difficulty. Ea vorbea cu dificultate.

b) cand constructia adverbiala este mai fireasca decat adverbul.

Ex.: She addressed the doctor in a broken voice. Ea s-a adresat doctorului cu o voce ragusita.

c) cand adaugarea sufixului -ly ar schimba intelesul .

Ex.: She spoke in a high voice. (She spoke highly of him.) Ea a vorbit laudativ despre el.

B) Dupa sensul lor lexical (continut), adverbele se impart in doua mari categorii:

adverbe modificatoare (Modifying Adverbs)

adverbe determinative (Determinative Adverbs)

Adverbele modificatoare modifica sensul verbului pe care-l insotesc. Din aceasta categorie fac parte:

a)     adverbe de mod (Adverbs of Manner)

b)     particule adverbiale (Adverbial Particles)

a)     Adverbele de mod terminate, de obicei, in sufixul –ly sau avand forma identica cu a adjectivului din care provin, modifica intelesul verbului, aratand modul in care se desfasoara actiunea sau in care exista starea sau insusirea exprimata de verb.

Ex: certainly, beautifully, nicely, quietly, rightly, slowly, well, hard, fast.

Adverbele de mod raspund la intrebarile: how?, in what manner?

Adverbele de mod au grade de comparatie.

Ex: He sang as harmonious as she could. Ea a cantat cat a putut de armonios.

b)     Particulele adverbiale sunt particule care modifica intelesul verbelor pe care le insotesc, transformandu-le in verbe complexe. Particulele adverbiale cel mai des utilizate sunt: about, away, back, down, up, in, into, on, for, out, over.

Ex: He ran away from school when he was a child. El a fugit de la scoala, cand era copil.

We ran out of Bibles in our office. Am terminat Bibliile in biroul nostru.

2) Adverbele determinative precizeaza ideea exprimata de un verb, adjectiv sau adverb in diferite sensuri. Aici sunt incluse:

a)     adverbele de loc (Adverbs of Place) – indicand locul (where?): here, there, inside, outside, somewhere.

sau directia (where to?, from where?, which?): backwards, eastward, far, this way, right, left.

b) adverbele de timp (Adverbs of Time) care raspund la intrebarile: when?, since when?, how long?, how often?, till when?

Ele determina verbe care indica momentul actiunii, succesiunea in timp, durata, frecventa.

c)     Adverbe de cantitate, masura, grad si aproximatie (Adverbs of quantity, extent, degree, and approximation), care raspund la intrebarile: how much?, to what extent? Determinand verbe, adjective, adverbe si chiar propozitii: extremely, enough, much, almost, nearly, fairly, little, rather, scarcely.

d)     Adverbe de afirmatie si negatie (Adverbs of Affirmation and Negation): yes, certainly, of course, no, not at all.

e)     Adverbe restrictive (Adverbs of restriction): only, just, but.



f)      Adverbs de cauza (Adverbs of Cause): therefore, that is why.

g)     Adverbe de scop (Adverbs of Purpose): purposely, on purpose.



h)    Adverbe de concesie (Concessive Adverbs): however, still, yet.

i)      Adverbe interogative (Interrogative/ wh- Adverbs)

Ex: How old are you? Cati ani ai?

j)      Adverbe conjunctive (Conjunctive Adverbs), care au un caracter de conjunctie, legand propozitii independente: consequently, therefore, besides, in any case.

Ex: They hadn’t been in Mali. Therefore they couldn’t say anything about it.

Nu fusesera in Mali. De aceea nu au putut spune nimic despre ea.

Forma adverbelor.

Cele mai multe adverbe de mod se formeaza prin adaugarea sufixului -ly la forma adjectivului.

Ex.: He is a slow walker. He walks slowly. El este un pieton lent. El merge incet.

La fel se formeaza si unele adverbe de timp, sufixul –ly fiind adaugat unui substantiv .

Ex.: This magazine is published every week. Aceasta revista este publicata saptamanal.

weekly.

Atentie. Nu toate cuvintele terminate in -ly sunt adverbe. Unele sunt numai adjective: friendly, lovely, lonely, likely, timely si sunt folosite ca parti ale unor constructii adverbiale.

Ex.: He came at a timely moment. She spoke to us in a friendly way/ manner.

El a venit intr-un moment potrivit. Ea ne-a vorbit intr-un mod prietenos.

Adverbele de timp terminate in -ly pot fi folosite atat ca adjective, cat si ca adverbe.

Ex.: This is a daily paper. It comes out daily. Acesta este un cotidian. El vine zilnic.

Ortografie.

In general, adaugarea sufixului –ly nu modifica forma initiala a cuvantului.

Ex.: He is a careless driver. He drives carelessly. El este un sofer neatent. El conduce neatent.

Daca adjectivul se termina in -e, acesta se pastreaza inaintea sufixului -ly: entire-entirely, extreme- extremely.

Exceptii: true-truly, due-duly, whole-wholly.

Daca adjectivul se termina in -l, adverbul va avea -ll, prin adaugarea terminatiei -ly: beautiful+ly.

Modificari de ortografie

Adjectivele terminate in -y il transforma in -i inaintea sufixului -ly: happy-happily, day- daily, etc.

Adjectivele terminate in -le silabic, pierd -e si adauga -y: simple-simply; probable-probably, sensible-sensibly;

Adjectivele terminate in -ic adauga -ally pentru a deveni adverbe: enthusiastic- enthusiastically, automatic-automatically, dar, public- publicly. Adjectivul good devine adverbul well.

Ex: She is a good pupil. She speaks English well. Ea este o eleva buna. Ea vorbeste bine englezeste.

Unele adverbe au forme speciale (only, often, ever, etc.), pe cand altele sunt omonime cu alte parti de vorbire, in special cu adjective.

Ex: She arrived early/ fast/ late today. Ea a sosit devreme/ repede/ tarziu astazi.

In alte cazuri adverbele pot avea doua forme, cu diferentieri de sens .

Ex: She came close and looked at me.(forma fara -ly). Ea s-a apropiat si m-a privit.

I followed the instructions closely. Am urmat instructiunile indeaproape.

.(= indeaproape-forma cu -ly)

La aceste adverbe, forma in -ly are de obicei un sens mai abstract sau figurat. Alte adverbe cu doua forme sunt:

-cheap - cheaply; dear - dearly; sharp - sharply; tight - tightly.

Pentru o mai mare fluenta in exprimare, forma adverbiala identica cu cea a adjectivului este adesea intrebuintata in comparatia adverbelor, chiar daca la pozitiv apare forma in -ly.

Ex: He runs quicker/ slower than me. El alearga mai repede/ mai lent ca mine.

FUNCTIILE SINTACTICE ALE ADVERBULUI

In plan sintactic, adverbele indeplinesc functia de complement circumstantial (Adverbial Modifier) de mod, de loc, de timp etc.

CATEGORIILE GRAMATICALE ALE ADVERBULUI

Unele adverbe de mod, de timp si de loc au categoria gramaticala a comparatiei.

COMPARATIA ADVERBELOR (Comparison of Adverbs)

Comparatia adverbelor apare numai la unele adverbe de mod, loc si timp. Ea are aceleasi caracteristici ca si comparatia adjectivelor.

Gradul pozitiv (The Positive Degree) nu implica nici o comparatie.

Ex: He studies hard/ fast/ quickly/ well/ badly. El studiaza din greu/ repede/ rapid/ bine/ rau.

Comparativul este folosit pentru compararea a doua persoane sau obiecte, iar superlativul pentru compararea mai multor persoane sau obiecte.

Gradul comparativ (The Comparative Degree), comparatia se realizeaza intre doi termeni si include: a) Comparativul de superioritate (The Comparative of Superiority).

Comparativul de superioritate se formeaza cu ajutorul sufixului –er, in cazul adverbelor monosilabice si a adverbului early: early-earlier, fast-faster.

Comparatia sintetica

ADV + -er + THAN + NP/ Clause

Comparatia analitica

MORE + ADV + THAN + NP/ Clause

In engleza familiara, forma de comparativ a adjectivelor este uneori folosita in loc de cea a adverbelor.

Ex.: She laughed louder than anyone else. Ea radea mai tare ca oricine altcineva.

b) Comparativul de egalitate se formeaza cu ajutorul lui “asas”.

Ex.: She speaks English as fluently as him. Ea vorbeste englezeste la fel de fluent ca el.

AS + ADV + AS

c) Comparativul de inferioritate, se obtine cu ajutorul lui not so/ asas.

Ex.: She doesn't learn as fast as her classmates/ less than her classmates. Ea nu invata la fel/ mai putin (de) repede ca si colegele ei.



He drives less carefully than his wife. El conduce mai putin atent decat sotia lui.

Comparativul adverbelor se realizeaza in doi termeni ca si la adjectiv.

Ex.: Paul works as rapidly as the others. Paul lucreaza la fel de rapid ca altii.

Of the two boys, Dan works the more thoroughly. Din cei doi baieti, Dan lucreaza mai atent.

Gradul superlativ (The Superlative Degree)

Superlativul absolut se formeaza cu ajutorul unor adverbe ca very, quite, most, care preced adverbele respective.

Ex: She sings very/ most/ quite beautifully. Ea canta foarte/ extrem/ destul de frumos.

Spre deosebire de comparativ, superlativul absolut se realizeaza intr-un singur termen.

Ex: Our teacher explains things most clearly. Profesorul nostru explica lucrurile foarte clar.

Superlativul relativ este de doua feluri:

a) Superlativ relativ de superioritate, exprimat prin (the).-est, in cazul adverbelor monosilabice si a adverbului early:

Ex.: He runs (the) fastest (of all). El alearga cel mai repede (dintre toti).

si prin (the) most + adverb in cazul adverbelor bi- si plurisilabice: He answers (the) most intelligently (of all).

THE + ADV + -est + OF + NP

b)     Superlativul relativ de inferioritate exprimat prin (the) least + adverb.

Ex: She spells words (the) least correctly (of all). Ea ortografiaza cuvintele cel mai putin corect (dintre toti).

Articolul the din forma superlativului poate fi omis, mai ales in limba vorbita.

Ex.: He runs fastest of all. El alearga cel mai repede dintre toti.

THE + LEAST + ADV + OF + GN

In cazul superlativului relativ, al doilea termen poate fi mentionat sau omis.

Ex.: (Of the three children) Mary plays the piano the best.

(Din cei trei copii) Mary canta la pian cel mai bine.

Adverbe care au forme identice cu adjectivele se supun acelorasi reguli fonetice si ortografice la gradele de comparatie: early- earlier-earliest.

COMPARATIA NEREGULATA A ADVERBELOR

(Irregular Comparison of Adverbs)

Unele adverbe formeaza gradele de comparatie in mod neregulat, ca si adjectivele corespunzatoare.

Ex.:

badly (rau) -worse- the worst

much (mult) - more - the most

little (putin) - less - the least

far (departe) - farther - the farthest

further - the furthest

well (bine) - better - (the) best

Locul adverbelor (Position of Adverbs)

Pozitie initiala (inaintea subiectului)

ADV + S + VP

Ex: Initially John had a good position in his class. La inceput (initial) John a avut o pozitie buna in clasa lui.

Pozitie mediala

S + Aux + ADV + MainV (S + ADV + VP)

Ex: Ginger is occasionally going shopping alone. Ginger merge uneori singura la cumparaturi.

Pozitie finala

S + VP + (C ) + ADV

Ex: Lisa missed the classes occasionally. Lisa a pierdut orele ocazional.

Utilizarea adverbelor

Enough/ quite/ rather/ fairly (destul de) sunt adverbe modificatoare de grad. Se asaza intotdeauna dupa cuvantul modificat.

Ex: The pupils didn't work hard enough. Elevii nu au muncit suficient de mult.

Far: in propozitii negative -interogative, in propozitii afirmative, el este fie insotit de alte adverbe sau prepozitii, fie inlocuit de away.

Ex.: He didn't go far. He lives far away. El nu a mers departe. El locuieste departe.

First/ at first: At first este folosit cu sensul de at the beginning.

First in alte situatii.

Ex: First I went for a walk and then I went to bed. Mai intai am plecat la plimbare si apoi m-am dus la culcare.

Hardly, barely, scarcely - au sens aproape negativ.

Ex.: He can hardly speak. El de-abia poate vorbi.

He had barely enough time to catch the train. He is barely 18. El abia a avut timp sa prinda trenul. El abia a implinit 18 ani.

I scarcely heard what he said. De-abia am auzit ce a spus.

Just now

a) chiar acum;

Ex: Pupils are going on holiday just now. Elevii pleaca in vacanta chiar acum.

c)     adineauri.

Ex: He came in just now. El a sosit chiar acum.




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