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TEME PENTRU NIVELUL AVANSAT LIMBA ENGLEZA

TEME PENTRU NIVELUL AVANSAT LIMBA ENGLEZA




TEME PENTRU NIVELUL AVANSAT LIMBA ENGLEZA

TEMA NR. 1

FORMULE DE SALUT. PREZENTUL CONTINUU.

TEXT SPECIFIC. FORMULE DE SALUT SPECIFIC ENGLEZESTI UTILIZATE LA INTALNIRE, DESPARTIRE.

IN RAPORT CU PERIOADELE ZILEI




Extrageti din urmatorul text formulele de adresare si salut intalnite:

H. : “Hello, John. What a pleasant surprise ! “.

J.: “Hello, Harry. It’s a long time since I saw you last”.

How are you ?.

H.: “Fine, thank you”.

J.: “How are you getting on with your new book ? ”.

H.: “Very well”.

J.: “Congratulations ! How about marking the occasion ?”.

H.: “By all means. And how are you ? How’ s everybody at home ?”.

J.: “Very well, thank you. (Looking at the watch). Excuse me

I must be running. I’ve got an appointment for 5”.

H.: “It’s been nice seeing you. My best regards to everybody

at home”.

J.: “ Thanks. Bye-bye. Keep in touch”.

Saluturi in raport cu perioadele zilei.

Good morning” / Buna dimineata.

La fel ca in limba romana, acest salut se foloseste in primele ore ale diminetii, pana la ora pranzului.

Good afternoon”/ Buna ziua

Se utilizeaza in intervalul dintre masa de pranz si ora 5 dupa amiaza (“ora ceaiului”).

Good evening”/ Buna seara.

Se utilizeaza de obicei dupa ora 5.

Good night / Noapte buna.

Se spune la ore tarzii. Se foloseste doar la despartire.

Obs.1. - Cand salutul este adresat unei persoane mai in varsta, uneia careia ii datoram respect, la expresiile mentionate anterior, se vor adauga, de la caz la caz, cuvintele Sir, Madam, Commissary, etc.

Ex.: Good morning, Sir: Good afternoon Madam; Good evening Captain.

Obs. 2. - “Good day” - este folosit rar, numai la despartire, pentru intreruperea unei conversatii neplacute sau chiar a unei relatii.

Alte forme de salut specific englezesti:

“Hello” / Salut, noroc.

Este o forma de salut folosita intre prieteni sau cunoscuti, intre persoane de aceiasi varsta (sau varste apropiate).

How do you’do”! / Va salut / Sa traiti / Sarut mana.

Aceasta forma de salut poate fi utilizata la orice ora, fata de persoane pe care le respectam. La ea se raspunde tot prin salutul “How do you do”!, cu care am fost intampinati.

“How are you ?”

Este o expresie cu referire la starea sanatatii sau dispozitia unei persoane; (niciodata prin “How do you do !”).

Raspunsul variaza de la caz la caz:

- I’m fine, thanks / Sunt bine, mersi.

- I’m all right / Foarte bine.

- Just so and so / Asa si asa.

- No too well, I’m afraid / Mi-e teama ca nu (ma simt) prea bine.

Saluturi folosite la despartire:

Good-bye”/ La revedere.

Sinonime cu “Good-bye” sunt expresiile:

So long” si “See you later” (Amer)

Abrevierea Bye-bye se foloseste in vorbirea familiara si in randurile tineretului. Se poate traduce. “PA”.

Good night”- se spune cand ne despartim de cineva la ore tarzii.

II. PRONUMELE PERSONALE. VERBUL “ TO BE”, FORMELE DE AFIRMATIV, INTEROGATIV SI NEGATIV LA INDICATIV PREZENT

A. PRONUMELE PERSONALE

Singular Plural

I - Eu We - Noi

You - Tu You - Voi

He - El They - Ei/Ele

She - Ea

Se utilizeaza doar pentru

It - El/Ea obiecte si animale.

B. VERBUL “TO BE”

Forma de afirmativ / The Affirmative Form

Singular Plural

I am - Eu sunt We are - Noi suntem

You are - Tu esti You are - Voi sunteti

He is - El este They are - Ei/Ele sunt

She is - Ea este

It is - El/ Ea este

Forme prescurtate

Singular Plural

I’m We’re

You’re You’re

He’s They’re

She’s

It’s

Forma de interogativ / The interrogative Form

Se formeaza facand inversiunea intre subiect si verbul “Be” la singular sau plural.

Exemple:

He is - Is he ?

It is - Is it ?

They are - Are they ?

Forma de negativ / The Negative Form

Se formeaza prin adaugarea negatiei “not” dupa verbul “Be” la singular sau plural.

Singular Plural

I am - I am not We are - We are not

You are - You are not You are - You are not

He is - He is not They are - they are not

She is - She is not

It is - It is not

NOTA:

La negativ pot fi folosite si formele scurte ale verbului “Be”.

Exemple

I’m not

She’s not

We’re not

They’re not

Formele scurte nu pot fi folosite in formarea interogatiilor cu verbul “Be”.

PREZENTUL CONTINUU

Este un timp gramatical utilizat pentru exprimarea unei actiuni care se desfasoara in momentul vorbirii. (Actiunea are durata si nu este completa).

FORMA / FORM

Prezentul continuu este format din timpul prezent al verbului “Be” si forma de “ing” (participiu prezent) a verbului principal.

Exemple: / Examples:

Eu merg la magazinul universal (in acest moment).

I am going to the Department Store (at this moment).

John si Peter asteapta autobuzul.

John and Peter are waiting for the bus.

Prezentul continuu se mai utilizeaza pentru exprimarea unei actiuni care se extinde pe o perioada putin mai lunga de timp, incluzand si momentul vorbirii.

Exemple: / Examples:

Eu citesc o carte a lui J. Joyce.

I am reading a novel by J. Joyce.

Detectivul John lucreaza la un caz dificil.

Detective John is working on a difficult case.

Prezentul continuu mai poate exprima o actiune temporara, limitata in timp (cu un adverb care indica timpul prezent: today, this month, this summer etc.).

Exemple:/ Examples:

I live in Brasov, but I’m living in Bucharest this month.

I usually walk but today I’m going to work by bus.

He spends his holidays in the mountains but he is spending his holidays at the seaside this summer.

TEMA NR. 2

PREZENTAREA. ARTICOLUL

TEXTE SPECIFICE. EXPRIMAREA NUMELUI SI PRENUMELUI

Cititi si traduceti urmatoarele dialoguri:

Read and translate the following dialogues:

DIALOGUE ONE / DIALOGUL 1

A.: What’s your name ?

J.: My name is John. My forename is Michael, but my

friends call me Mike.

A.: I see. Mike is your pet-name.

Have you got a Nickname ?

J.: No, I don’t think so.

DIALOGUE TWO / DIALOGUL 2

A.: What is your father’s name ?

J.: My father’s name is James D.Parker.

A.: What does “D” stand for in his name ?

J.: D stands for Duncan.

A.: And what was your mother’s maiden name ?

J.: It was Alice Priestley. Now she is Mrs. James

D.Parker.

A.: I thought that after getting married she became

Mrs.Alice Parker.

J.: That’s not right.

DIALOGUE THREE / DIALOGUL 3

A.: You will have to go to the Police Station in order to write a complaint in which you should mention:

your surname, Christian / first name, place and date of birth, address and the conditions on which the burglary occured.

B.: Thank you, Sir. I’m going to the Police Station right away.

Translate and learn the following words and phrases.

- Surname

- Christian name

- Forename

- Pet-name

- What does “D” stand for in his name ?

- Mother’s maiden name

- Nickname

- Alias

ARTICOLUL HOTARAT SI NEHOTARAT;

UTILIZARE IN CONTEXT

Identificati si subliniati articolele din urmatorul text:

The tourists were enchanted by the folk art of Romania. They studied it in the Village Museum in Bucharest and in the peasant houses all over Moldavia and Transylvania.

The Smiths told their friends about the voyage on the Pacific Ocean.

- The Olt river flows into the Danube.

They lived at the Ambassador Hotel for 3 days.

“Do you know that an elephant has escaped from the zoo? ”

ARTICOLUL HOTARAT / THE DEFINITE ARTICLE

The - se pronunta [ðӘ] in fata consoanelor si a sunetului ju provenit din u, ew, eu, ca si inainte de w si y.

Exemple: the man, the flag, the pencil, the University, the ewe, the year, the window.

The - se pronunta [ði] in fata cuvintelor care incep cu o vocala : the officer, the orange, the engineer.

Articolul hotarat trebuie folosit in context cu:

- nume de muzee: The Village Museum, The British Museum;

- nume de familii la plural: The Smiths, The Whites, The Browns;

- denumirile marilor, oceanelor, fluviilor, raurilor: The Black Sea, The Pacific Ocean, The Olt River, The Danube;

Exceptie fac denumirile lacurilor: Lake Ontario;

- denumirile lanturilor muntoase: The Carpathians, The Alps.

Exemplu: The Alps have many steep peaks.

- nume de vapoare / ambarcatiuni: The Aurora, The Independence.

ARTICOLUL NEHOTARAT / THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE

a se pronunta [Ә ] inaintea unei consoane si a sunetului ju provenit din ue sau eu. Tot a se foloseste si in fata lui w sau y.

Exemple: a book, a student, a union, a university, a European woman, a wolf, a window, a year.

Inaintea unei vocale, articolul nehotarat este an.

Exemple: an apple, an orange, an elephant, an idea, an identity card.

NOTA 1: Atat articolul hotarat, cat si cel nehotarat se aseaza inaintea substantivului.

NOTA 2: Atat articolul hotarat, cat si cel nehotarat nu se accentueaza, nu se face pauza dupa ele, ci se contopesc in vorbire cu cuvantul urmator, pe care-l determina.

Absenta articolului / Absence of Article

Absenta articolului este de cele mai multe ori aparenta, intalnindu-se articolul zero. Acesta se utilizeaza in urmatoarele cazuri:

- cu substantive care denumesc substante (in generalizari);

Exemple: (-) Iron is a metal.

(-) Water is a liquid.

- cu nume de continente, tari si provincii geografice;

Australia, North / South America, Europe, Asia, Romania, Japan, Moldavia.

Exemplu: (-) Romania is a country in Europe.

Exceptii: The USA, The Malagasy Republic, The Netherlands, The Antarctic;

- cu anotimpurile si lunile anului: winter summer, spring, autumn; March, January, etc.

Exemple: (-) January is a winter month.

(-) Spring is my favourite season.

- cu mesele zilei: breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper.

Exemple:

I usually have(-) breakfast at 8 o’clock.

- cu nume de stiinte: Physics, Mathematics, Chemistry, Phonetics.

Exemplu: (-) Physics is an interesting science.

- cu nume de orase: Bucharest, Slatina, New-York.

Exemplu: (-) Bucharest is the capital of Romania.

NOTA: Daca se fac referiri despre un oras in care vorbitorul nu locuieste permanent se va folosi: “the town of..”

- cu varfurile de munti: Omu Peak, Hidden Peak.

Exemplu: I’m going to the town of Pitesti.

TEMA NR. 3

DOMICILIUL. PREZENTUL SIMPLU

I. EXPRIMAREA ADRESEI SI A DOMICILIULUI:

STRADA, ORAS, JUDET, TARA

Cititi si traduceti urmatorul dialog.

Read and translate the following dialoque.

A.: Will you tell me where you live?

B.: I live in Slatina.

A.: Are you so kind as to give me your address?

B.: You see, I’ve just moved in a new block of flats. My new address is: Number 12 Primaverii / Spring Street, Block F.A. 16, (on the) second floor, flat 12: Slatina Town, Olt District, Romania.

A.: Thank you very much. By-the-way, is your flat large enough for you and your family ?

B.: Yes, it is.

A.: Is it far from the centre of the town ?

B.: No, it is in the very centre of the town, so it’s in a noisy street.

Translate and learn the following words and phrases

- on a main road;

- in the very centre of the town;

- in a suburb of the town;

- in the outskirts;

- is your town far from the capital ?;

- is your district in the north or in the south/in the east or in the west (part ) of the country ?

- It is in the south / north of the country;

- slum;

- avenue.

PREZENTUL SIMPLU; PROPOZITII AFIRMATIVE, INTEROGATIVE SI NEGATIVE; UTILIZAREA PREZENTULUI SIMPLU CU VALOARE DE VIITOR

Prezentul simplu; Propozitii afirmative, interogative si negative.

The Simple Present Tense; Affirmative, Interrogative and Negative Forms.

The Simple Present Tense / Timpul prezent simplu

Definitie: Prezentul simplu desemneaza actiuni obisnuite, repetate regulat in anumite momente ale zilei, saptamanii lunii, anului etc.

Se foloseste cu every day

week ,

once, twice a week, a month’, a year

usually, often, always.

(de obicei, adesea, mereu/ intotdeauna)

Forma

a./ Afirmativ:* Sb + Vb + a.p.

(Affirmative) Exemple: I go to my office every day

We watch TV every evening.

La persoana a III-a singular masculin si feminin, verbului i se adauga terminatia “s”, pronuntata [ s ] sau [ z ]

Exemple: My friend always helps me.

She plays tennis on Saturday.

Cand verbul se termina in vocala “o” sau in consoanele suieratoare (ch, sh, th, x) la persoana a III-a singular se adauga grupul “es”, pronuntat

[ z ] sau [ iz ].

Exemple: She goes to school in the morning.

He washes his uniform once a week.

John does all the things well.

Ortografierea, la persoana a III-a singular, a verbelor terminate in y - verbele terminate in “y” precedat de o vocala, pastreaza “y” si adauga “s”.

Exemplu: I play - he / she plays.

- verbele terminate in “y” precedat de o conosoana, schimba “y” in “i” si adauga - “es”.

Exemple: We try - he / she tries.

They cry - he / she cries.

b./ Interogativ : Do + Sb + Vb + a.p. ?

(Interogative)

Exemple: Do you live in a big town ?

Do they go to the seaside every summer ?

La persoana a III-a singular / masculin si feminin, auxiliarul “do” este inlocuit cu “does”.

Exemple: Does she live in a big town ?

Does he play football well ?

c./ Negativ: Sb + do not + Vb + a.p.

(Negative)

Exemple: I do no not know this person.

We do not put on ties on trips.

Forma svcurta: do not - don’t [ doun’t].

La persoana a III-a singular (masculin si feminin) do not este inlocuit cu does not / doesn’t (forma scurta).

He doesn’t walk in the park every evening.

She doesn’t do her homework on Sunday.

Prezentul simplu cu valoare de viitor .

The Simple Present tense used to express planned future actions.

Prezentul simplu se utilizeaza si ca mijloc de exprimare a unei actiuni viitoare care va avea lor ca parte a unui program oficial: plecarile si sosirile trenurilor, avioanelor etc., conferinte, congrese nationale si internationale, emisiuni TV etc.

In limba romana se poate traduce fie prin prezent, fie prin viitor.

Exemple:

Trenul urmator soseste / va sosi la 18.30.

The next train arrives at 6.30 p.m.

The last bus leaves at 8.00 a.m.

The conference starts in ten minutes.

TEMA NR. 4

PROFESIA SUBSTANTIVUL

TEXT CU VOCABULAR SPECIFIC

Cititi si traduceti urmatorul dialog.

Read and translate the following dialogue.

DIALOGUE ONE / DIALOGUL 1

A.: What’s your job ?

B.: I have a part-time job as a nurse in a famous hospital. And I’m still studying to become a doctor. I want to cure sick people. My father is a physician, too.

A.: What about your mother ? What’s her job ?

B.: She’s a French teacher. She also took her degree in German at the University of Bucharest.

May I ask what are your qualifications ?

A.: I do office work. I’a notary.

B.: Do you have to work overtime ?

A.: Yes, I usually go off duty late in the evening.

B.: What are your office hours ?

A.: My office hours are from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m.

Cuvinte si expresii / Words and Phrases

- What’s your job ?

- A part - time job;

- A full - time job ;

- Physician - Doctor;

- What are your qualifications ?

- To work overtime;

- I go off duty;

- Office / Work hours;

NOTA: Substantivele care exprima profesiile la singular sunt precedate obligatoriu de articolul nehotarat.

Exemplu:

Dan este functionar comercial.

Dan is a clerk.

Victor este inginer.

Victor is an engineer.

DIALOGUE TWO / DIALOGUL 2

A.: Where do you work ?

B.: I’ m a Law Enforcement Official.

A.: So you work for the Police. What can you tell me about the Romanian Police ?

B.: Well, the Romanian Police is a guvernmental agency working throughout the country.

A.: Which are the main duties of the Romanian policeman?

B.: He has to protect and assure the safety of the people, according to the laws of our constitution.

A.: What eaxctly does your work include?

B.: It includes foot and car patrols, responding to calls from the public, investigating crimes and public order duties.

A.: Thank you very much for your information.

B.: You’re welcome.

Cititi, traduceti si retineti urmatoarele cuvinte si expresii .

- Throughout the country;

- Public order duties;

- According to;

- Basic laws;

Vocabular suplimentar / Additional Vocabulary

- How much do you earn a month / a year?

- When is your day off?

- Are you on duty tomorrow?

- I have been trained as.

- I have graduated (from) the Police Academy .

Folosind un dictionar englez – roman traduceti urmatoarele meserii.

- Tailor;

- Economist;

- Civil engineer;

- Plumber;

- Skilled craftsman;

- Typist;

- Shorthand typist;

- Watchman;

- Joiner;

- Chemist;

- Driver;

- Book-keeper;

- Turner;

- Welder;

- Shop assistant;

- Shopkeeper;

- Conductor;

- Translator.

GENUL SUBSTANTIVELOR. SUBSTANTIVE CU PLURAL REGULAT SI NEREGULAT; SUBSTANTIVELE PLURALITATII; FORME DUBLE DE PLURAL CU SENS DIFERIT

1./ Genul substantivelor

1. A. Genul masculin / The Masculine Gender

Sunt de acest gen substantivele care se inlocuiesc prin pronumele personal “he” cand este vorba de fiinte sau animale personificate.

Exemple: boy, man, father, uncle, lion, he-wolf etc.

1. B. Genul feminin / The Feminine Gender

Desemneaza fiintele de gen feminin, intruchipand femeia ca fiinta, stare, nationalitate, profesie.

Exemple: mother, woman, girl, daughter, aunt, she-wolf, lioness etc.

Feminine sunt si substantivele: ship si car (numai pentru proprietar), love, kindness, anger, pride, night, evening, morning, rain, snow.

1. C. Genul neutru / The Neuter Gender

Desemneaza lucrurile si tot ceea ce este neinsufletit si nu implica ideea de sex.

Exemple: table, chair, oak. chalk, peace, house, hand etc.

Tot de genul neutru sunt si animalele inferioare sau mici: mouse, mosquito, fly etc.

Genul comun / The Common Gender

Desemneaza substantivele care pot fi de ambele sexe, fiind privite in afara unui context.

Exemple: parent teacher

child cousin

doctor engineer

In context insa, aceste substantive devin fie masculine, fie feminine, dupa caz.

Exemple: The teacher gave a few more examples, as she wanted the pupils to understand the rule.

In acest context substantivul “teacher” este de genul feminin (she).

Cateva substantive ce-si modifica forma la feminin

Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine

actor actress heir heiress

waiter waitress pea-cock pen-hen

tiger tigress he-wolf she-wolf

cock-sparrow hen-sparrow bull-calf cow-calf

he-goat she-goat bridegroom bride

hero heroine director directress

prince princess wizard witch

host hostess shepherd shepherdess

Folosind un dictionar englez – roman traduceti substantivele de mai sus..

2. / Substantive cu plural regulat si neregulat

2. A. Substantive cu plural regulat

- Substantiv + s

Exemple: book-books; student - students; gun - guns; boy - boys; country – countries, officer - officers.

- Substantiv + es - pentru substantivele terminate in consoane suieratoare.

Exemple: watch - watches ; bus - buses; church - churches; class - classes; lunch - lunches; box - boxes; buz - buzzes.

Exceptii: month - months;

mouth - mouths;

path - paths.

2. B. Substantive cu plural neregulat

Sunt substantivele care formeaza pluralul altfel decat prin adaugarea terminatiilor “s” sau “es” ; ele au o forma diferita de plural.

Ex.: one man - two men;

one woman - two women;

one child - two children;

one goose - two geese;

one die - two dice ; [ dais ]

one ox - three oxen;

Alte exemple:

tooth - teeth;

foot - feet;

louse - lice [lais]

3./ Substantivele pluralitatii / Nouns of Multitude

Sunt o varietate a substantivelor colective. Se folosesc cu verbul la plural si pot fi precedate de numerale.

Exemple:

people: multime, lume, oameni;

folk: oameni, lume;

poultry: pasari de curte, oratanii;

cattle: vite (cornute), cireada;

vermin: vermina, daunatori.

Exemple in context:

Are there many people at the entrance to the museum ?

The cattle have been watered. (Vitele au fost adapate).

4./ Forme duble de plural cu sens diferit

Singular Plural

brother 1/ brothers frati (buni).

2/ brethren frati.

figurat: frati apartinand unei comunitati.

genius (geniu) 1/ geniuses genii, oameni de geniu.

2/ genii duhuri.

penny (ban englezesc) 1/ pennies (monede separate).

2/ pence (ca valoare).

Ex.:You can have this for six pence.

TEMA NR. 5

FACAND CUMPARATURI. GENITIVUL IN LIMBA ENGLEZA

TEXTE SPECIFICE CU DIVERSE MAGAZINE SI MARFURILE CE SE POT CUMPARA DIN FIECARE, EXPRESII TIPICE UTILIZATE LA CUMPARATURI.

Cititi si traduceti urmatoarele texte .

1./ At the Baker’s / La magazinul cu produse de panificatie

Characters: Shop assistant (S.a.);

Madam Agness (M.Ag.).

S.a.: Good morning. Can I help you ?

M.Ag.: Yes, please. I’d like 2 loaves of brown bread, some rolls and a rye bread.

S.a : Here you are, Madam Anything else ? / Will there be anything else ?

M.Ag.: Yes, I’d also like to buy 10 cracknels.

S.a : Sorry, no cracknels today.

M.Ag.: All right. Good – bye .

S.a: Good – bye , come again.

Vocabular specific.

- 2 loaves of bread – doua paini

- rolls - chifle

- cracknels - covrigei

- gingerbread – turta dulge

2./ At the Grocer’s / At the Food Store/ La magazinul   alimentar

Characters: Shop assistant (S.a.);

Mr. Smith (Mr.S.).

S.a. : Good afternoon. What can I do for you ?

Mr.S.: Well, I’d like to buy a kilo or rice, a kilo of sugar and some freshly roasted coffee beans.

S.a. : Here you are. Would you like anything else ?

Mr.S.: Yes, please. A bottle of vegetable / edible oil, 10 eggs and a jar of strawberry/apricot jam.

S.a. : Here you are.

Vocabular

- rice - orez

- freshly roasted coffee-beans - cafea boabe proaspat prajita.

- cash-register – casa de marcat

- apricot - caisa

3./ At the Greengrocer’s / La aprozar

Characters: Shop assistant (S.a.);

Mr.John (Mr.J.).

Mr.J.: Excuse me, I’d like some tomatoes and a bunch of bananas.

S.a. : Sorry, no more bananas today.

Mr.J.: Then give me some tangerines instead.

S.a. : Here you are 95.p.

Mr.J.: 95.p. ? That’s a lot of money.

S.a. : You’re right. Tangerines are very expensive this week.

Vocabular specific

- tangerines - mandarine

- they don’t look fresh – nu par proaspete

4./ At the Butcher’s / La magazinul de carne

Characters: Shop assistant (S.a.);

Mr.Antony (Mr.A.).

S.a.: Good morning. What can I do for you ?

Mr.A.: I’d like to buy a joint of beef about 2 pounds.

S.a.: How about this piece ?

Mr.A.: I think it is too fat, I’d like something lean.

I think the loaf over there is just what I need.

S.a. : Yes. Will there be anything else ?

Mr.A.: I’d also like to buy one kilogram of mutton and a chicken.

That chicken. Will you weigh it for me, please ?

S.a. : Of course.

Mr.A.: And have you got any minced meat ?

S.a. : I’m afraid it’s sold out.

Vocabular specific

Folosnd un dictionat engez-roman traduceti urmatoarele cuvinte.

- a joint of beef about 2 pounds;

- a kilogram of mutton;

- lean meat;

- it’s sold out;

- minced meat;

- mutton chops;

- beef;

- pork;

- a tin of ham;

- sirloin;

- a ready-to-fry pork sirloin;

- veal.

GENITIVUL IN LIMBA ENGLEZA: GENITIVUL SINTETIC,

ANALITIC, ELIPTIC, TAUTOLOGIC SI AL UNITATILOR DE TIMP



Substantivul in cazul genitiv exprima in general ideea de posesiune.

A. Genitivul sintetic (saxon)

Forma de singular

Posesor’s + obiectul posedat

John’s car is red.

The boy’s new shirt.

Dupa ‘s pot apare si persoane (membrii de familie, rude etc.).

Peter’s sister.

Dan’s uncle.

NOTA: Daca posesorul este un nume terminat in “s”, genitivul sintetic se poate construi cu ‘s sau doar cu ‘-, dar oricum se scrie, se pronuna [ iz ].

Charles’house; Charles’s house.

Genitivul sintetic se utilizeaza, in general atunci cand posesorul este o persoana.

Exista insa si alte situatii de utilizare a acestuia:

a./ denumiri geografice sau a unor institutii:

Exemple: Romania’s foreign policy;

the school’s programme;

b./ cu substantive colective:

Exemple: our nation’s security;

the tiger’s fur;

c./ cu compusii lui some, any, no, every:

Exemple: somebody’s advice;

everyone’s wish;

nobody’s fault;

d./ in unele expresii:

Exemple: a needle’s eye, for order’s sake, life’s joys, the ocean’s roar, the journey’s end, on the razor’s edge, thruth’s victory.

e./ cu unitatile de timp:

Exemple: today’s newspaper;

a year’s work;

yesterday’s news.

Forma de plural

Posesori’ + obiectul posedat / obiectele posedate

The students’ notebooks;

The players’T - shirts.

Exceptii:

The children’s

The men’s

The women’s

Exemplu:

Women’s Clothing Department - Raionul de imbracaminte femei.

B. Genitivul analitic (prepozitional)

Se formeaza cu prepozitia of dupa obiectul posedat:

Se foloseste in general cu substantive care desemneaza obiecte.

Exemple:

The door of the room.

The windscreen of the car was broken.

Se mai poate folosi cu nume proprii, in locul genitivului sintetic.

Exemple:

The teacher of Peter.

The pictures of Daniel and Smith.

C. Genitivul eliptic

Este o forma in care lipseste obiectul posedat, acesta subintelegandu-se prin simpla enuntare a posesorului.

Se utilizeaza in doua cazuri:

a./ pentru locuinta cuiva

Exemple: I’m going to my mother’s (house).

b./ pentru pravalii, firme, restaurante, cluburi.

Exemple: I’ll go to the grocer’s (shop).

She is at the tailor’s (workshop).

I usually have dinner at Sall’s (restaurant).

D. Genitivul tautologic (dublu)

Este o forma specifica de genitiv englezesc, in care posesorul poarta atat genitivul prepozitional “of” cat si pe cel sintetic “s”.

Se foloseste in doua situatii:

a./ Cand posesorul poseda atat partea (partile) cat si intregul.

Exemple: Here is one of my father’s books.

I know two of James’s brothers.

b./ Cand avem doua sau mai multe genitive in succesiune directa.

Exemple: Coperta cartii fratelui meu este albastra.

In acest caz se foloseste genitivul cu of pana la ultimul posesor, cand se utilizeaza genitivul sintetic.

The cover of my brother’s book is blue.

Culoarea masinii varului prietenului meu este alba.

The colour of the car of my friend’ s cousin is white.

E. Genitivul unitatilor de timp

Exemple: today’s newspaper, a year’s work, 2 weeks’ work, yesterday’s news.

TEMA NR. 6

LOCUINTA. PREPOZITIA.

STRUCTURILE POLITIEI ROMANE

TEXT SPECIFIC REFERITOR LA O LOCUINTA: CAMERE SI MOBILIER; ALTE ACCESORII CASNICE

Cititi si traduceti urmatorul text:

Read and translate the following text:

My house, like most ordinary English houses, has 2 storeys. It stands a little back from the road and in front of it there is a small garden. A path leads from the gate to the front door of the house.

At the side of the house there is a garage where I keep my car. The garden is surrounded by a fence, with a gate in it.

On the ground floor there are the entrance-hall, one large lounge serving as a general living-room and as a reception room for visitors; a dining-room; a kitchen with a pantry.

A staircase leads from the hall to the landing on the first floor. On this floor (upstairs) there are the bedrooms, the bathroom and the children’s room.

On the top of that is the loft with 2 attics. The roof is covered with tiles and on the top of the roof there are 2 chimneys and a T.V. aerial.

Traduceti urmatoarele substantive folosind un dictionar englez – roman .

Camerele unei case / apartament si piese de mobilier.

- Entrance-hall;

- Lounge;

- Living-room;

- Reception room;

- Dining- room;

- Kitchen;

- Pantry;

- Storeroom;

- Spare-room;

- Bedroom;

- Bathroom ;

- Loft;

- Attic;

- Cellar.

Mobilier si accesorii:

Furniture and Furnishings:

In sufragerie / In the Dining-room

- Table;

- Chairs / Armchairs;

- Couch / Sofa;

- Extending couch;

- Chest of drawers;

- Glass case;

- Period furniture;

- Modern furniture;

- Pictures / Oil paintings;

- Fireplace.

In dormitor / In the Bedroom:

- Bed;

- Night stands;

- Dressing table;

- Wardrobe;

- Book case (optional);

- Shelves;

- Night lights.

In bucatarie / In the kitchen:

- Table; chairs;

- Stools;

- Sideboard;

- Cupboard;

- Gas cooker;

- Sink;

- Refrigerator / Fidge;

- Deep freeze;

- Automatic water-heater;

- Dish washer;

- Coffee filter;

- Electric mixer.

In baie / In the Bathroom

- Bath-tub;

- Shower;

- Wash-basin;

- Mats;

- Washing machine;

- Mirror (s).

Alte aparate pentru usurarea muncii in gospodarie:

Other Labour- Saving Devices:

- Boiler;

- Motor mower;

- Vacuum cleaner;

- Central heating;

- Oven;

- Electric fire;

- Coal stove.

PREPOZITIA: PREZENTARE, ASPECTE SPECIFICE DE

UTILIZARE SI TRADUCERE IN DIFERITE CONTEXTE

Prepozitii englezesti:

English Prepositions:

1. at

a./ Folosirea spatiala: at - la (static).

He is at the window

El este la fereastra.

b./ Folosire temporala: at - la

I’ll meet you at one o’clock.

Ne vom intalni / Te voi intalni la ora unu.

He will he here at noon.

El va fi aici la amiaza.

c./ Alte sensuri:

At last - la / in sfarsit.

At least - cel putin, macar.

At the same time - in acelasi timp.

2. in

a./ Folosirea spatiala: in - in (static)

The boy is in the room.

Baiatul este in camera.

b./ Folosirea temporala.

Winter starts in December.

Iarna incepe in decembrie.

Because of the fog the plane will take off in the morning.

Din cauza cetii avionul va decola dimineata.

I first met him in 1984.

Prima data l-am intalnit in 1984.

3. on

a./ Folosirea spatiala: on - pe.

Se utilizeaza pentru a se exprima atasarea/contactul de o suprafata.

The books are on the desk.

Cartile sunt pe birou.

b./ Folosirea temporala; in general on - in, intr-o.

Were you on the beach on that day ?

Ai fost pe plaja in ziua aceea ?

I won’t go out on such a night.

4. over

a./ over - peste, fara contact cu baza sau cu o suprafata.

The plane is flying over the ocean.

b./ over - pe, peste, cu contact cu o baza, suprafata sau corp.

Put the blanket over me, please.

Pune patura pe mine, te rog.

5. under

a./ under - sub, dedesubt, fara contact cu o suprafata.

The cat is under the table.

Pisica este sub masa.

b./ under - sub, dedesubt, cu contact cu o baza, suprafata sau corp.

I am under the blanket.

Sunt sub patura.

c./ alte sensuri:

- under these circumstances - in aceste imprejurari;

- under cover - sub acoperire;

- under separate cover - prin curier separat in alt plic;

- to go under - a esua, cadea.

The business went under.

Afacerea a esuat / a “cazut”.

6./ above - deasupra (spatial, pe verticala).

Diferite utilizari:

a./ Intr-un text: mai sus, anterior.

The plan mentioned above.

Citatul mai sus mentionat/amintit mai inainte.

b./ Above the river - in susul raului/ fluviului.

c./ A hundred and above - o suta si mai multi/ mai bine.

d./ Above all - mai presus de toate/ decat orice.

e./ Above + gen. This is above me

care depaseste Aceasta (este o chestiune care) ma depaseste.

f./ Legat de temperaturi - peste, plus

It is ten degrees above zero.

Sunt + 10

7. below - dedesubt (spatial, pe verticala).

jos; mai jos.

Se foloseste si pentru exprimarea temperaturilor:

It is five degrees below zero.

Sunt -5

8. after.

a./ folosire spatiala - dupa (antonimul lui before).

The children are running after the ball.

Copii alearga dupa minge.

b./ folosire temporala - dupa

He came back after midnight / in the afternoon.

El s-a intors dupa miezul noptii/ dupa amiaza.

9. about

a./ about - despre, cam, circa, aproximativ (inclusiv cu folosire temporala si spatiala).

We are talking about prepositions.

Vorbim despre prepozitii.

It’s about 2 o’clock.

Este cam/ aproximativ ora 2.

There were about seven people near the broken car.

Erau aproximativ/ cam 7 oameni langa masina stricata.

The cabin is at about 2 miles’distance.

Cabana se afla aproximativ la distanta de 2 mile.

10. By.

a./ folosire spatiala - la , langa, pe langa.

They were sitting by the fire.

Ei stateau langa foc.

He passed by me. A trecut pe langa mine.

b./ folosire temporala - pana la ; exprima ideea unei limite temporare.

Scrisoarea ar fi trebuit sa fi ajuns pana la ora 14.

The letter should have arrived by 2 o’clock in the afternoon.

c./ arata mijlocul de transport - cu

We shall travel by plane.

Vom calatori cu avionul.

d./ alte intrebuintari: in diverse expresii:

By all means - cu orice pret

I’ll do it by all means

By no means - cu nici un pret/defel

By the way - apropo

By means of - cu ajutorul

By heart - pe dinafara (din memorie)

We checked him out by means of the computer.

L-am verificat prin intermediul computerului.

11. Out of - afara (spatial)

She was looking out of the window.

Ea privea (afara) pe fereastra.

Get out of here !

Iesi afara de aici ! / Pleaca !

12. Off.

a./ off - plecarea; cu verbul “to be”

I’ll be off at 10 o’clock.

Voi pleca la ora 10.

b./ off - actiunea de a inchide un aparat sau de a stinge lumina; cu verbul “to turn” sau “to switch”.

Turn off the radio, please.

Inchide radioul, te rog.

The man switched off the light and got out of the room.

Barbatul a stins lumina si a iesit din camera.

c./ off - dezbracarea; cu verbul “to take”.

“Take off your coat”, the doctor said.

“Scoateti-va haina”, spuse doctorul.

DEPARTAMENTELE POLITIEI ROMANE-

PREZENTARE IN LIMBA ENGLEZA.

Read, translate and keep into your mind :

The Romanian Police consists of:

-General Inspectorate of the Romanian Police.

This is the central unit of the Police. It manages, coordinates and supervises the activity of the 40 territorial inspectorates and of the Directorate General of Bucharest Municipal Police.

-General Inspectorate of tha Police also coordinates and manages the activity of the centres for the formation, training and further training of the policemen in Slatina and Campina.

-Other police units providing support in carrying out specific assignments.

-Railway, Air, Naval and Traffic Police Inspectorates.

Translate into Romanian:

-Criminal Investigation Department.

-Dept. For Counteracting Organised Crime

-Criminal Justice Legislation Department.

-Economical and Financial Crime Department.

-Public Order and Safety Department.

-The Special Task Force

- The Forensic Institute

TEMA NR. 7

MESELE ZILEI. TRECUTUL VERBELOR “TO BE” SI “ TO HAVE”. MODALITATI DE EXPRIMARE A

CAPACITATII/ABILITATII FIZICE SI MINTALE.

I.         TEXT CU VOCABULAR SPECIFIC :“LUNCH”.

Cititi si traduceti urmatorul text.

D: What do English people usually eat at noon ?

M : At about one o’clock English people have lunch. This consists, as a rule, of two courses : a main course and a sweet or pudding. The first course is some meat : beef or mutton, park, lamb, chicken. As vegetables they have boiled or roast potatoes, carrots, peas, cabbage, cauliflower or spinach .

D: Do English cooks make good puddings?

M: Yes, they are quite good. You usually have to choose between rice or plum pudding or apple tart, stewed fruit, cream caramel or trifle. Instead of pudding some people prefer cheese and biscuits and fruit : apples, pears, grapes or oranges. Lunch always ends with a small cup of white or black coffee.

D: By the way, do you miss our Romanian food here, in England ?

M: Oh yes, I do. I miss our traditional dishes : ciorba, called “sour soup” in English, mititeii, called “rolled mincemeat (richly spiced) or stuffed cabbage leaves , I mean “sarmalutele”. Sometimes I’d like to have a maize polenta with sour cream. Anyway, the English food is good and I’ve got used to eating it.

Vocabular

Course Rolled mincemeat

Cabbage Maize polenta

Caramel (burn sugar) Cauliflower

Meal Well – to – do (adj.)

Carrots White coffee

Peas Trifle

Pudding Stewed

Soup

Sour cream

VERBELE “TO BE” SI “ TO HAVE” LA TRECUTUL SIMPLU; UTLIZAREA IN CONSTRUCTII AFIRMATIVE, INTEROGATIVE SI NEGATIVE.

Trecutul verbului “TO BE”

Afirmativ: I was We were

You were You were

He was They were

She was

It was

Is – was

Are - were

Interogativ: Was I ? Were we ?

(prin inversiune) Were you ? Were you ?

Was he ? Were they ?

Was she ?

Was it ?

Negativ: I was not We were not

Prin adaugarea You were not You were not

negatiei “not” He was not They were not

dupa “was” sau She was not

“were” It was not

Forme contrase

Was not - wasn’t.

Were not - weren’t.

Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii ce contin verbul “TO BE” la trecut.

Victoria was Queen for 64 years, from 1837 to 1901. That was a record reign !

In August 1066 William was in Normandy, with an army of 6 thousand men, on his way to England. The weather was bad.

His experience of war was diverse. He was a journalist in South Africa, in 1899. He was also o soldier during World War I, in 1915.

He was minister for the Navy. His idea was that air power was the key to victory against Hitler. And he was right. Who was that person ?

2. Trecutul verbului “TO HAVE”.

Forma de trecut a acestui verb este “had” pentru toate persoanele.

Ex. : I had

You had

He had

She had

We had

You had

They had

Propozitiile negative se formeaza :

1. Prin adaugarea negatiei “not” dupa “had”.

I had no idea about that burglary .

2. Didn’t have .

I didn’t have any objection to your plan.

Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii ce contin verbul “TO HAVE” la trecut.

Last year I had an old Dacia. Now I have a Pegeout.

The Queen Victoria had nine children.

They had a beautiful house and a flat in one of the town’s suburbs.

I hadn’t time enough to solve my problems last week.

We didn’t have John’s address.

VERBUL MODAL “CAN”. UTILIZARE IN DIVERSE CONTEXTE GRAMATICALE.

Traduceti urmatoarele propozitii. Explicati sensurile verbului “CAN”.

Now we can speak a little English. We can also practice some translations from Romanian into English and from English into Romanian. I can read short articles from English magazines or newspapers, with the help of dictionaries, of course. We are very happy because we have improved our English knowledge. We always speak English when we are together. Our motto is: “Better speak bad English than very good Romanian during the English class.”

A.    I can run 100 meters faster than you.

B.    No, you cannot/can’t.

A.    Is it a match?

B.    But can you swim faster than me?

A.    Oh, you know I can’t.

Asa cum s-a putu observa, in exemplele date, “CAN” exprima capacitate/abilitate fizica sau mintala.

“CAN” este un verb modal si este intotdeauna urmat de verb la infinitivul scurt (fara to).

“CAN”, nu primeste litera « S » la persoana a III-a singular si nici verbul care il insoteste nu ia terminatia respectiva.

Negarea detinerii unei abilitati fizice sau intelectuale se reda utilizand forma cannot/can’t urmata de verb la afirmativ.

Exercitiu.

Folosind verbul modal “CAN”, exprimati abilitati fizice sau intelectuale. Alcatuiti propozitii negative.

Exprimarea unor capacitati abilitati fizice si intelectuale la timpul trecut (Simple Past).

Verbul modal “CAN” are ca forma de inlocuire : “to be able to”.

In exprimarea abilitatilor mentionate la timpul trecut, se pot folosi formele – Could ; - was/were able to.

Cititi, traduceti si comparati urmatoarele propozitii.

I could swim when I was seven.

I was able to cross the river, even the water was very cold.

The policemen were able to catch the thieves, though they were outnumbered and the thieves had knives and were violent.

Explicatii :

“Could” reda capacitati/abilitati manifestate in trecut, in conditii normale, obisnuite. Face mentionarea existentei acesor abilitati intr-un anumit moment al existentei din trecut.

« Was/Were able to » - exprima abilitati manifestate in trecut in conditii dificile, ostile.

Exercitiu :

Dati exemple de utilizare ale lui “could” si “was/were able to”, in contextele mentionate anterior.

TEMA NR. 8

I. Text cu expresii specifice utilizate la gara;

I. A. Expresii tipice utilizate la gara

Cititi si traduceti urmatorul text:

Read and translate the following text:

At the Railway Station

Here we are at the railway station. Our friends are going for their holidays. They have booked their tickets in advance and now they are in the waiting-room: Next door to the waiting-room there are other offices and rooms: station master’s office, inquiry office, left-luggage and the parcels office.

All kind of trains are passing through the station: passenger trains, - express, fast or slow; good trains, local and long distance trains.

After a while, the public address system announces that our friends’train is in. They pass through onto the platform and the tichet-collector examines their tickets. In British railway stations there is a gate at the end of each platform. The ticket - collector stands at the gate and checks the travellers’tickets.

Along the platforms there are book-stalls where people can buy newspapers and magazines to read during the journey.

(Adapted).

Cuvinte si expresii / Words and Phrases

They have booked their tickets in advance;

Waiting-room;

Station Master’s Office;

Inquiry Office:

Left-Luggage Office;

Parcels Office;

Fast train;

Slow train;

Long-distrance train;

Public Address System;

Ticket-collector;

Booking - Office.

Folosind dictionarul Englez – Roman traduceti cuvintele de mai sus, invatati-le si alcatuiti propozitii cu ele.

Text specific. Structuri lexicale utilizate pe un aeroport;

All the passengers on an airport must show their passports for Passport Control before going through Security Check. There you must decide on the red or green channel. Red means you have something to declare and your luggage will be inspected. Green means nothing to declare and the customs men make’only random checks.

Then, there is the Check-in Counter where your luggage is weighed and sent to the plane. At the Check - in Counter passengers receive a boarding pass whick allows them to get on the plane.

Once through customs you are in the Arrival Concourse, with bar, cafeteria, toilets, currency exchange facilities and the desks of two car - hire firms. The answer to any problem is to be found at the Information Desks.

When the passengers hear the announcement for their flight, they proceed to the gate to board the plane.

Verbele regulate. Formarea Trecutului Simplu in constructii afirmative, interogative si negative;

In constructiile afirmative acesta se formeaza adaugand verbului terminatiile “ed” sau « e ».

Trecutul simplu (The Past Tense Simple) se traduce in general, prin perfectul compus.

Terminatia “ed” se pronunta:

- [ t ] dupa o consoana surda: p, k, s, f.

Exemplu:

stop - stopped

walk - walked

cross - crossed.

- [ id ] cand verbele se termina in -t sau -d.

Exemplu:

want - wanted

nod - nodded.

[ d ] cand verbele se termina in vocala sau consoana sonora.

Exemplu:

play - played;

arrive - arrived.

Trecutul simplu este timpul gramatical folosit pentru a exprima o actiune desfasurata si incheiata in trecut, care nu are nici o legatura cu prezentul, nici o urmare asupra prezentului.

Este de asemenea timpul naratiunii in limba engleza.

Exemple de utilizare comparativa la prezent si la trecut a unor verbe regulate.

to arrive

The train from Sinaia arrives at 7 p.m.

We arrived at the hotel at 3 o’clock.

I cross this street once a day.

I crossed this street yesterday, too.

He usually knocks at the door in this way.

Somebody knocked at my door last night.

Text in limba engleza cu structuri referitoare la definitia si particularitatile crimei organizate (I).

Cititi si traduceti :

Taking into account the social economical changes triggered by transition, and the continuous growth of delinquency, a specialized organization in counteracting organized crime has been created in Romania.

The main task of this organization is to deal with the new forms of crime which have appeared in our country.

As this phenomenon has a great importance and a strong impact on social and economic life, the Police have focused all its attention and efforts for defeating, diminishing the negative effects and for fighting all its forms of action.

TEMA NR. 9

TURNAND UN FILM . TRECUTUL SIMPLU AL VERBELOR NEREGULATE. CRIMA ORGANIZATA (II) .

TEXTE SPECIFICE PE TEMA “ MAKING MOVIES “.

Cititi textul urmator si incercati sa completati cuvintele lipsa marcate prin cifre, folosind indicatiile date la exercitiul lexical care urmezaa textului.

In April 1012, the Titanic (1) , left Southampton on its maiden voyage to N.Y. On the night of 14 th April, in the iry waters of the North Atlantic, the supposedly un sinkable ship hit an iceberg. 1,513 of the 2,300 people were killed.

In 1985, film director James Cameron saw a television documentary about the Titanic and her story.

The documentary (2), containing haunting images of the giant ship lying in pieces on the bed/bottom of the North Atlantic. Cameron was busy with other projects at that time, but ten years later he put together a script idea which would combine the real disaster with a fictional love story between characters from completely different backgrounds (3).

Cameron presented his idea to 20 th Century – Fox in March 1995. The director had already spent an enormous L 125 million on his film “True Lies” (4) and he estimated Titanic would cost no more than L 80 million. “I anticipate that it will be less expensive than my last two films”, he told Hollywood reporters. Studio bosses were interested and offered Cameron a contract to make the film.

Next, he decided to make things perfectly, so he wanted to use footage of the wreck itself, and chartered the Akademmic Mstislav Keldysh (5). The brilliant underwater images impressed the studio, and in May 1996 they told Cameron that he could proceed with the movie. But he told them that the costs had increased and would now be about $ 125 million (6). The studio chief objected that it is too much money and told him not to let the costs get out of hand.

Folosind un dictionar englez-roman, traduceti si retineti urmatoarele cuvinte:

(un) sinkable

haunting

he put together

screen, big screen

director

script idea

script writer

footage

proceed with

EXERCITIU LEXICAL.

Read text again and solve the following exercise.

A 1. Read the article and put these pieces of extra information in one of the places market.

a) made by oceanograph Robert Ballard;

b) on increase of 50 % more than his original estimate;

c) a Russian scientific vessel equipped with special underwater vehicles;

d) an aristocratic young English woman and a poor talented artist.

e) starring Arnold Schwartzenegger and J. Curtis;

f) the biggest ship ever built.

VERBELE NEREGULATE. CONJUGAREA LA „TRECUTUL SIMPLU” IN CONSTRUCTII AFIRMATIVE.

Verbele neregulate sunt acele verbe care formeaza „Past Tense” si „Past Participle” prin forme proprii, deci altfel decat prin adaugarea terminatiei „ed”, ca la verbele regulate.

De multe ori, trecutul simplu al verbelor neregulate se formeaza prin schimbarea vocalei interioare a cuvantului, respectiv insotita si de unele schimbari privitor la restul structurii cuvantului. Uneori se schimba doar o singura vocala, ca in cazul verbelor come – came – come, run – ran – run, understand – understood – understood. Exista si verbe neregulate cu structura triforma : speak – spoke – spoken, do – did – done, fall – fell – fallen, drive – drove – driven, blow – blew – blown, etc.

Observati si retineti utilizarea corecta a verbelor „speak” si „go” la trecutul simplu in structuri afirmative:

I spoke to the witnesses yesturday. He spoke to John last wek.

I went to the country last Saturday. They went to the seaside last summer, too.

Schematizand propozitiile afirmative se formeaza astfel:

SB + Vb. la forma a II-a + a.p.

TABEL CU CELE MAI UTILIZATE VERBE NEREGULATE

INFINITIVE

PAST TENSE

PAST PARTICIPLE

TRADUCERI

to begin

began



begun

a incepe

to bend

bent

bent

a (se) indoi

to blend

blent

blent

a (se)imbina

to blow

blow

blown

a bate, a sufla

to break

broke

broken

a rupe, a sparge, a farama

to bring

brought

brought

a aduce, a determina

to burn

burnt

burnt

a arde, a frige

to burst

burst

burst

a izbucni, a exploda

to buy

bought

bought

a cumpara

to catch

caught

caught

a prinde, a agata

to choose

chose

chosen

a alege

to cleave

cleft

cleft

a despica, a desface

to deal

dealt

dealt

a se ocupa de (+with)

to do

did

done

a face, a savarsi

to drink

drank

drunk

a bea a toasta (+to)

to drive

drove

driven

a conduce, a merge

to eat

ate

eaten

a manca

to fall

fell

fallen

a cadea, a se prabusi

to feed

fed

fed

a alimenta

to hide

hid

hidden

a (se) ascunde

to hold

held

held

a tine, a mentine

to keep

kept

kept

a pastra, a detine

to freeze

froze

frozen

a ingheta

to give

gave

given

a da

to grow

grew

grown

a creste, a cultiva

to hit

hit

hit

a lovi, a nimeri

to hurt

hurt

hurt

a rani

to forget

forgot

forgotten

a uita

to forswear

forswore

forsworn

a nega, a jura stramb

to get

got

got

a obtine, a primi, a ajunge

CRIMA ORGANIZATA (II)

TEXT IN LIMBA ENGLEZA.

The main dirty activities of organized crime are:

Illegal trade with drugs

Money laundering / crime cash

Flash trade

Prostitution

Extortion

Plastic fraud

Money forgery

Nowadays organized crime has a tendency of globalization. Different gangs are getting organized in many countries. They cooperate and operate effectively all over the world. They have strong leaders and even one of them is killed or put in jail, the gangs keep on operating. That aspect shows what a sophisticated organizational structure the gangs dealing with organized crime have.

TEMA NR. 10

VORBIND LA TELEFON. SPALAREA BANILOR

TRECUTUL CONTINUU

TEXTE SPECIFICE IN LIMBA ENGLEZA CONTINAND STRUCTURI LEXICALE FOLOSITE INTR-O CONVORBIRE TELEFONICA

Cititi si traduceti urmatoarele dialoguri ce contin expresii tipice utilizate in convorbirile telefonice:

. Mr. Smith lifts the receiver and dials 420809

Mr. Johnson : Mayfair, four-two-ah-eight-at nine.

Mr. S. : May/Can I speak to Mr. Johnson, please?

Mr. J. : Speaking

Mr. S. : Good morning. This is Peter Smith speaking, I’ve rung you up to ask if we could meet tomorrow or the day after tomorrow.

Mr. J. : Is it about the business with the steel from Sweden?

Mr. S. : Yes, this is what I would like to talk about.

Mr. J. : Well, you see, we could smeet and discurss at 9 am tomorrow. Do you agree with my proposal?

Mr. S. : Yes, of course. See you tomorrow, then. Good-bye, Mr. J.

Mr. J. : Good-bye, Mr. S.

Secretary: Only Hall, 434409

Mr. S. : May/Can I speak to Mr. Dove, please?

S : Just a moment / Wait a second, please

Mr. D. : Hell. Davis is speaking.

Who am I speaking to?

Voice : Hello. John Derek is speaking.

Can I speak to Mr. Nelson, please?

Secretary : What Nelson? There is no Nelson here.

I’m afraid you’ve got the wrong number.

Voice : Oh, I’m so sorry.

Secretary : That’s all right

If you want to have a phone conversation with a friend of yours who lives in another town, you’ve got to make a long distance (phone call).

You either ask the operator to connect you, or, if your friend lives in a bigger town, you may dial the number yourself.

First you must dial the town’s code number where you are calling and then the subscriber’s number.

If you want to make a local phone call, you first go into the telephone box and lift the receiver. After you hear the dialing tone, that indicates that nothing is wrong on the order, you may dial the number you want.

Vocabular specific

To dial a no.

To speak on the phone

Mr. John is speaking

To ring somebody up

To make a long distance phone call

To put smb. through / I’ll put you through

Code number

The line is free / clear

The number is busy / engaged

Your phone is out of order

You’ve got the wrong number

Telephone directory

Pick up the phone, please!

Hold the line!

Don’t hang up

Extension

Folosind dictionarul Englez – Roman traduceti si retineti cuvintele si expresiile de mai sus.

TEXT SPECIFIC: MONEY LAUNDERING

Read and translate the following text.

MONEY LAUNDERING

WHAT IS MONEY LAUNDERING (M.L.)?

M.L. is the attempt to conceal the true ownership and origin of proceeds of illegal activity.

Criminals need to effect control of illegally obtained proceeds.

Stages: Placement

Layering

Integration

Important Pints: ML – Natural Step for Most Crimes.

Almost Every crime That Involves $ Involves M.L.

M.L. Crime is a crime distinct from criminal activity that

generated the $

$ May Be Spent on legal transaction ( Source of Money, not use of money, makes an illegal transaction )

There are professional money launders and ordinary criminals who launder their own money.

LAW ENFORCEMENT RESPONSE TO M.L.

Pass laws that specifically fight m.l. enforce m.l. laws by investigating and prosecuting laundering.

Forfeit Proceeds of crime and instruments used to commit crime.

international cooperation.

TEMA NR. 11

AUTOTURISMUL. TERMINOLOGIE POLITIENEASCA IN LIMBA ENGLEZA. FRAZA DE SUBORDONARE CONDITIONALA .

TEXT CU VOCABULAR SPECIFIC “DRIVING A CAR” -

Cititi si traduceti urmatorul text:

Read and translate the following text:

When I want to start, I turn the ignition key twice to the right. If the engine doesn’t start, I ease out the choke a little and try again. This usually does the trick. Then, I push down the clutch, select the first gear, press the accelerator and off I go. Straight into the second; after a bit into the third and if traffic allows into the fourth and into the fifth.

Take care to release the handbrake before leaving !

I have to move the steering wheel to change direction, indicating correctly where I’m going. Before doing that I press the footbrake gently or rapidly (as the case may be) to stop or slow down.

I’m not usually tempted to overtake unwisely, to exceed the speed limit or to drive under the influence of alcohol.

I respect traffic rules, traffic policemen and pedestrian crossings.

Vocabular specific / Specific Vocabulary

I Turn the ignition key twice to the right;

I ease out the choke;

I push down the clutch;

I select the first gear;

To release the handbrake;

I dip my headlights;

To overtake unwisely;

Pedestrian crossings.

Traduceti si retineti termenii de vocabular de mai sus.

PREZENTAREA IN LIMBA ENGLEZA A PRINCIPALELOR PARTI ALE UNUI AUTOVEHICUL.

THE PARTS OF A CAR

A./ Outside the car

The Bonnet;

The Radiator Grill:

The Bumper;

The Number Plate;

The Wind Screen;

The Wind Screen Wipers;

The Headlights;

The Traffic Indicator Lights;

The Wheels;

The Tyres;

The Mudguards;

The Exhaust Pipe;

B./ Inside the car

The Steering Wheel;

The Dash-Board;

The Gear Lever;

The Choke;

The Clutch (Pedal);

The Footbrake;

The Handbrake;

The Accelerator (Pedal);

The Ignition;

The Seats;

The Car Trunk.

FRAZA DE SUBORDONARE CONDITIONALA DE TIPUL I; EXEMPLE SI EXPLICAREA REGULII GRAMATICALE.

Translate into English / Traduceti in engleza:

a./ Noi vom cumpara cartea daca o vom gasi in librarie.

b./ Voi merge in excursie daca vremea va fi buna.

Traducerea in engleza:

a./ We shall / will buy the book if we find it at the bookshop.

b./ I shall/will go on trip if the weather is fine.

Explicatie:

Main Clause If-Clause

(Prop.principala) (Prop.subord.conditionala)

I shall/will repair my car if I have time enough

Y will follow if X happens

FUTURE TENSE if PRESENT TENSE

Exercitiul 1:

Folosind modelul anterior, spuneti ce veti face daca veti avea timp.

Using the previous model, say what you will do if you have enough time.

a./ I - work in the garden;

b./ I - go to the country.

Model de rezolvare:

a./ I shall / will work in the garden if I have enough time.

b./ I shall / will go to the country if I have enough time.

Exercitiul 2:

Scrieti verbele din paranteza la forma corecta:

Write the correct form of the verbs in brackets:

a./ They (phone) you if you (stay) at home.

b./ Mr. Smith (not catch) the plane if he (not arrive) at the airport at 8 o’clock.

c./ If the wind (be) good, he (sail) 200 miles a day.

FRAZA DE SUBORDONARE

CONDITIONALA DE TIPURILE II SI III

Ex.1. Traduceti in engleza urmatoarele fraze:

Translate the following sentences into English:

a./ As merge la pescuit daca as avea timp liber.

b./ Noi am sta in cabana daca ar bate un vant puternic.

c./ Daca nu s-ar trezi tarziu, nu ar pierde trenul la fiecare doua zile.

d./ Ei ar merge in excursie daca vremea ar fi buna.

Rezolvare:

a./ I should / I would go fishing if I had any spare time.

b./ We should / would stay in the chalet if a strong wind blew.

c./ If he didn’t get up late, he / would not / wouldn’t miss the train every two days.

d./ They would go on trip if the weather were fine.

Explicarea modului de formare a frazei conditionale

de tipul al doilea

* La traducerea din limba romana in engleza:

Conditionalul prezent din propozitia principala, in limba romana, „trece” si in limba engleza.

In propozitia subordonata, in limba engleza, conditionalul prezent din principala, impune folosirea trecutului simplu - “The Simple Past Tense”.

NOTA: In subordonata conditionala de tipul al II-lea, verbul “be” are o forma unica pentru toate persoanele: were.

Ex. I wish he were there

she - “ -

they - “ -

we - “ -

In vorbirea curenta insa, exista tendinta de a-l inlocui pe “were” cu “was” la persoana I si a III-a singular. Tendinta este mai pregnanta in engleza americana

Ex.: If I was there, I would talk to her

If she was a teacher, she would work in a school.

Schematic, regula poate fi redata astfel:

MAIN CLAUSE

IF - CLAUSE

Ar conduce masina daca

He/ she would drive the car if

PRESENT CONDITIONAL IF

(WOULD + VERB)

ar avea permis de conducere.

he/ she had a driving licence

PAST TENSE SIMPLE

WERE - for the verb “be

Y would follow IF

X happened

** La traducerea din limba engleza in limba romana, atat propozitia principala, cat si subordonata conditionala de tipul al II-lea se traduc cu conditional prezent.

2. IF - CLAUSES. TIPUL III. Fraza conditionala tipul al III-lea

IF - CLAUSES. CONDITIONAL SENTENCE TYPE III.

Ex.2. Traduceti in limba romana:

Translate into Romanian:

a./ They would have got up early if the weather had been fine.

b./ He would have gone to his grandfather’s house if he hadn’t had the key to his flat.

Explicatie:

* La traducerea din limba romana in engleza.

Conditionalul trecut in propozitia principala din limba romana, trece si in propozitia principala in limba engleza.

In propozitia subordonata, conditionalul trecut din principala impune folosirea” mai mult ca perfectului “/ The Past Perfect Tense.

** La traducerea din limba engleza in limba romana, atat propozitia principala cat si subordonata conditionala de tipul al III-lea se traduc folosindu-se conditionalul trecut.

Read and translate the following text. Pay attention to the police terminology. Use an English – Romanian dictionary.

Crime and Punishment

Crime violates the laws of a community, state, or nation. It is punishable in accordance with these laws. The definition of crime varies according to time and place, but the laws of most countries consider as crimes offences as arson, bigamy, burglary, forgery, murder, and treason.

Not all offences against the law are crimes. The laws that set down the punishments for crimes form the criminal law. This law defines as crimes those offences considered most harmful to the community.

Death or life imprisonment is the usual penalty for treason. Laws in the United States, for example, define a felony as a crime that is punishable by a term of one year or more in a state or federal prison. A person who commits a misdemeanor may be punished by a fine or a jail term of less than one year.

(Adapted from Test Your Vocabulary)

TEMA NR. 12

FORMULE DE ADRESARE SPECIFICE ACTIVITATII AGENTULUI DE POLITIE RUTIERA.

EXPRESII SI STRUCTURI LINGVISTICE UTILIZATE IN SOLUTIONAREA INCIDENTELOR RUTIERE.

DIALOG CONTINAND TERMENI SPECIFICI MUNCII

DE POLITIE RUTIERA.

Cititi si traduceti urmatorul text :

Josie: Let’get the car. Jump in, you two.

Kate: Quick, Josie! Follow that truck!

Josie: Which way did it go?

Sam: It turned left at the traffic lights.

Josie: OK. Can you see it anywhere?

Kate: Yes, look! It's turning right. It's going towards the sea.

Josie: Yes, I see.

Sam: Can't you go any faster, Josie?

Josie: No, I can't. It's dangerous.

Kate: I can see it. It's turned left and it's going past the Heaven Hotel.

Sam: It's going into the park!

Kate: No, it isn't. It's turning left between the hotel and the park.

Josie: OK. Ah yes, it's going straight ahead along Park Street, I think.

Sam: No, it's turning. It's turning right.

Kate: Oh no! The traffic lights are changing. They're red.

Sam: Oh no! We'll lose them.

Josie: Did you see the writing on the side of the truck? What did it say?

Kate: It was a number or a name; Rick something

Sam: Look! The lights are turning green. Let’s get going and catch them. They got into the junction on the read light they, exceeded the speed limit, they didn’t concede priority. They are already a public danger.

Raspundeti la urmatoarele intrebari :

a)     What did the two officers follow ?

b)     Where did the action take place ?

c)     What traffic rules did the truck driver intrude ?

Relatarea unui eveniment rutier . Terminologie specifica.

The car driven by Dan, a young but experimented driver was heading toward his home - town. A colleague was accompanying him. 'You could give it a little more gas' he said. 'Cool down, fellow', Dan replied. When it's dark and the road is wet, I always drive at moderate speed. Racing is not my style. Slower is safer. Not only once have I seen overturned cars on roads or in ditches. Saying these, Dan approached the point where the road turned left. There were about 60 - 70 meters left when suddenly, from the opposite way, a lorry was coming winding across the road. The lorry was now less than 10 meters, when Dan pressed the brakes and at the some time turned his car to the left. The lorry had cut crossed his way, skidded and finally smashed against a tree, across the edge of the road. Dan managed to control his car, so that he could stop it on the road in a somehow aslant position. Luckily no car was coming from the other direction.

EXPRESII REFERITOARE LA CONTROLUL RUTIER SI CONTRAVENTII SAU INFRACTIUNI RUTIERE.

Cititi, traduceti si retineti urmatoarele expresii :

Listen to me !

No parking !

No turn left / right !

Don’t hoot your horn!

Move along !

Slow down !

Switch off the engine please.

Please show me the car documents.

You exceeded the speed limit.

You didn’t signal the direction of going.

You haven’t conceded priority.

It is forbidden to park here.

The car park is over there ; it’s signposted .

Get out of the car, please.

Sorry, but you can’t go that way.

Would you move your vehicle from here ?

Remove your car or it will be towed away .

Have you been drinking? You must be breathalysed.

Take a deep breath and blow until I tell you to stop.

There result of the test is negative. You may go.

As the result is positive, we need to check with the breathalyzer at the police station.

Please, may I see your driving licence, your car insurance certificate and the car registration document.

TEMA NR. 13

ACTIVITATI SPECIFICE DESFASURATE DE POLITIE.

TEXTE PUBLICITARE

TEXTE IN LIMBA ENGLEZA CU TERMINILOGIE DE SPECIALITATE REFERITOARE LA O SERIE DE ACTIVITATI DESFASURATE DE POLITIA DIN DEVON SI CORNWAL.

Cititi si traduceti urmatoarele texte; folositi dictionarul englez – roman la traducerea cuvintelor necunoscute.

1. That August weekend began like any other; until Saturday afternoon, when a 13-year old schoolgirl set out as usual on her paper round. Her name was Genette Tate and, as she was riding down her bike down a narrow county lane, she cycled into the annals of the nation’s most puzzling crime mysteries. Within minutes she vanished without trace, leaving her bicycle lying undamaged in the leafy lane, the rear wheel still spinning.

So began the longest and most baffling missing person case ever undertaken by the Force. The circumstances were so bizarre that the Police were quickly alerted and began an immediate search of the surrounding countryside, but to no avail. The girl had last been seen when she paused to chat to two friends from the village. Then she rode on and ten minutes later its side with the newspapers she had been delivering spilling from the saddlebag.

All the available officers were drafted. The search parties started radiating out the area from the spot where a RAF helicopter circled overhead, scouring the countryside for any clue to Genette’s disappearance. Despite a massive search operation over the following days, weeks and months, nothing was found.

As the mystery deepened 80 more detectives were involved in solving the case. They worked around the clock trying to piece together the jigsaw of events in and around the village on the day Genette vanished in thin air. Tracing

vehicles, following up leads, questioning everyone who was in the vicinity on that day.

Reconnaissance aircraft with thermal imaging cameras overflow patchwork of fields and woods, as specialist units from other forces from Avon, police dogs specially trained to locate human remains were brought in to take part in the search. They followed up all the possible leads and no stone was left unturned in the search of Genette. But still nothing was found. Even the leading experts in the paranormal could throw no new light on the baffling events of that August afternoon.



Over the years the Genette Tate case file has never closed, and despite the passage of time the case which achieved such spectacular national notoriety is still a classic enigma.

What happened to Genette Tate on that fateful summer day?

The question remains unanswered.

Vocabular / Vocabulary

the nation’s most puzzling crime mysteries

. . . she vanished without trace

. . . the most baffling missing case

to undertake / undertaken by the Force

to no avail

to comb (the fields, an area)

. . . scouring the countryside

. . . despite a massive search operation

to work around the clock

. . . to piece together the jigsaw of events

to trace vehicles

to follow up leads

all lines of investigation

. . . cold throw no new light on

Traduceti si memorati urmatoarele cuvinte si expresii folosind dictionarul Englez – Roman.

Raspundeti la urmatoarele intrebari:

Answer the following questions:

a)     What happened to Genette?

b)     When was she last seen? Who saw her?

c)     What was she doing at that time?

d)     What did the Force activity consist of?

e)     Did the Force give up the search easily?

f)      Was Genette finally found?

g)     What specialists were involved in this case?

2. The Police have been faced with a more violent and highly efficient drugs scene within the last years and, in order to gain success in the fight against drugs, they have increased their intelligence – gathering and liason with drug agencies in other countries.

The Constabulary Drug Squad from Devon and Cornwall works closely with Customs performing surveillance work and intelligence gathering. Sometimes the constables watch criminals for many months before striking to cause maximum harm to the organization.

One such operation began an Thursday the 21-st of January when 156 kilograms of cannabis resin (street value 400.000 lire) was discovered, having been concealed in a remote wood at Davidstowe, North Cornwall.

As the result of the find, a surveillance team was placed at the scene awaiting the return of the offenders. The team, made up of two customs officers and two police officers, waited until 1.17 p.m. on 19 February when they were informed that a vehicle was heading to the wood. Moments later, a man 25 – 30 years old, brown hair and beard, wearing dark clothing and a hat, walked towards the stash, unscrewed the lid and tampered with the barrel, then left the area carrying a white plastic bag. Less than three minutes since the first sighting, the man was heard getting into a car, the enigma started. The bait had been taken. Not far down the road the car was stopped and the two occupants arrested on suspicion of being involved in the importation of drugs.

Vocabulary Practice.

The Police have increased their intelligence gathering

Liason with drug agencies

. . . before striking to cause maximum harm to the organization; to strike; to hit; to kick

. . . stash

. . . unscrewed the lid; to screw

. . . and tampered with the barrel

The bait had been taken

. . . having been concealed; to conceal

Answer the following questions:

  1. Where did this Police action take place? Setting in time and space.
  2. How many officers took part in this mission?
  3. What did the capture consist in?
  4. What specific activities did the Force carry on?
  5. Where were the drugs hidden?
  6. How many drug dealers were involved?
  7. What did the man who went to the stash look like?
  8. How were the ,,dealers” caught?

PROCEDEE DE LIMBAJ UTILIZATE IN REALIZAREA

TEXTELOR PUBLICITARE

Textele publicitare au drept scop promovarea comerciala a unuia sau mai multe produse comerciale, a unor servicii sau unitati prestatoare de servicii.

Textele si imaginea publicitara sunt realizate dupa anumite tehnici specifice, respectand o serie de procedee de limbaj, folosind o retorica argumentativa construita pentra a realiza efectul scontat.

Reclamele, de orice fel, utilizeaza doua limbaje : cuvinte si imagini.

Intre procedeele de limbaj utilizate frecvent in acest scop mentionam : antanaclaza, gradatia, aximoranul, hiperbola, superlativul.

Antanaclaza.

Consta in repetitia unui cuvant cu sensuri diferite.

Ex. Swatch. A great watch. Buy yourself a swotch, the fantastic watch. The others just watch.

Gradatia

Se bazeaza cresterea gradate a ,,fortei” unui cuvant de regula un adjective folosit la diferite grade de comparative.

Ex. Choose Logimax. Go for it and you will be satisfied. Buy it and you will be very satisfied. Know your Logimax, use it and you’ll get fully satisfied.

Oximoronul

Consta in incrucisearea a doi termini formand o antiteza (reuniunea a doua contrare).

Ex. “Hight quality at a low price”

“The small great car “ “VW beetle”

“The amall giant”

“Matiz”

Superlativul. Hiperbola.

Cititi si traduceti urmatorul anunt publicitar si identificati procedeele de limbaj mentionate mai sus.

For all its elegance refinement Grand Cheroke is first and foremost a Jeep. Which means it possesses the kind of do – everything, go – anywhere, capabilities that offer you freedom. And now Rolex, or if you have already get one, to buy one (your Rolex) for somebody you care for. If so you could hardly do better than to visit the Watches of Switzerland Rolex showroom in Band St. London.

To see the collection, gain expert advice on Rolex or simply to pick up a catalogue, call in at our showroom.

TEMA NR.14

DROGURI SI STUPEFIANTE. TRAFICUL ILICIT DE DROGURI.

TEXTE CU TERMINOLOGIE SPECIFICA LEGATA DE DROGURI SI STUPEFIANTE.

Read and translate the following texts:

A massive growth of drug consumption and illicit trade have been noticed within the last 10 years, not only in Romania but all over the world.

Drug addiction tends to become a social problem in some countries and “drug problem” has become a worldwide phenomenon.

The Police, Customs officers and different international agencies have been putting a tough fight against this threat. Within the last years, important quantities of drugs have been captured and destroyed by the officers from “Narcotics” in different countries of the world.

From a pharmaceutical point of view, a drug represents a vegetal, animal or mineral substance, used mainly in preparing some medicines or intoxicants.

Intoxicants – are substances that may be used for the inhibition of man’s nervous centres. Their effect mainly consists in a physical inertia of these nervous centres.

If they are taken in for a longer period of time, they will surely create addiction: that means the person who has become a “real user”, has become dependent and will permanently feel the “need” of taking / having the “usual” amount or amounts bigger and bigger.

There are also the “psychotropic substances”, such as: amphetamines, sedatives, pain killers, narcoleptics, antispastics, central stimulants. They are used for medication of the central nervous system. The best known amphetamines are associated to the “ecstasy tablets”. On the “black market” one can find: amphetamine – the fully synthetic narcotic substance, sold as tablets or capsules; M.D.A., D.O.B. and M.D.M.A.

As power of action upon man, there are soft drugs and hard drugs. Hard drugs are very dangerous. They damage people’s health, create addiction, lead to death. There has always been made a connection between the consumption of hard drugs and crime.

The most widely used drugs round the world are:

Cannabis

It is maybe the most abused drug within Europe’s borders’ limits. There are two categories of cannabis: marijuana and hashish.

Marijuana, a.k.a. “grass” is a blend made up of the stem and flower of hashed hemp. The users smoke it, being incorporated in common cigarettes or in pipe tobacco.

Hashish is a solid paste round or oval-shaped. It is light or dark brown, so it can be easily recognized. Hashish may be chewed or sometimes smoked.

The main sources for herbal cannabis are Jamaica and Southern Africa. The main source for resin cannabis (row hashish) is Pakistan. Belgium, Spain and The Netherlands are important secondary distribution centres to all the parts of Europe.

Opium

It is especially produced in Iran, Iraq, or in the Far East. It appears as a brown paste, having a sour, bitter taste.

Most of the users smoke it. Some of them prefer opium “improved” with morphine, which gives a very toxic residue.

Opium may be found as balls, granules, or even powder.

Heroine

It is the main artificial derivative of morphine and represents one of the most dangerous drugs because it creates a strong physical addiction.

It appears as a brown, grey or white powder, according to its quality. The drug may be injected intravenously or may be breathed in. It has a strong smell of vinegar.

The main cultivation zones are the Golden Crescent and the Golden Triangle in South East Asia. The main source for European countries remains the Golden Crescent in South West Asia.

Heroine travels to Europe via Turkey and from there through the Balkans to Romania, Italy, Austria and Germany. For a person who is not a drug addict, the lethal dose of heroin is 0.10 grams.

Cocaine

Appears as a white brilliant powder with a bitter taste. It brings about a local anaesthesia under the tongue.

The main cultivation zones are in South America. Outstanding producers are: Columbia, the biggest one, then Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador. Europe has been targeted as “market” by the Columbian cartels within the last 10 years. Big quantities of cocaine have been sent to Europe’s largest parts.

Sometimes the Police were successful. A few years ago officers from “Narcotics” discovered and captured one tonne from a single seizure in the United Kingdom. Cocaine may be breathed in or be injected intravenously. The “connoisseurs” snort it using a spatula of bone or ivory.

Cocaine is not as toxic as heroin is and is less addictive than any other hard drugs, like “crack”.

Vocabulary.

addict - dependent

drug addiction - dependenta

intoxicants - stupefiante

pain-killers - analgezice

to bring about (a feeling) - a produce ( o senzatie)

cocaine may be breathed in - cocaine poate fi prizata

to snort (sl.) - a priza (argou)

a spatula of ivory - o spatula de fildes

from a single seizure / to seize – la o singura captura/a captura

drug trafficker - traficant de droguri

ELEMENTE DE ARGOU FOLOSITE DE TOXICOMANI.

Here are some slang elemnts used by the drug traffickers and drug addicted :

Acid rock - petrecere unde se asculta rock si se consuma droguri

Bang / Prick - intepatura (de injectie cu drog)

Bomb - marihuana

Lady – H - heroina

Job popping / skin popping -intepatura in vena

Lady snow - cocaina

Dope peddler – traficant de droguri

Hong Kong pills – droguri sub forma de pastille (in special amphetamine)

TERMINOLOGIE, STRUCTURI LINGVISTICE SPECIFICE LEGATE DE TRAFICUL ILICIT DE DROGURI.

Read and translate the following text. Pay attention to the underlined words and phrases. Use an English – Romanian dictionary.

Heroine costs between three to twenty-five dollars a deck. A deck is a cellophane packet with a drug in it, sufficient for a single intravenous “shot”.

A twenty-year old girl said: “It costs me over 70 dollars a day to support this habit when I’m on crisis”. But the “average” for an addict is 25 – 35 dollars a day.

The question is: “How is a teenager who is given 50 cents a day, going to find at least 25 dollars every day?”

In this way each teenager who takes in drugs / breaks in might become a dangerous offender

Teen-age muggings, housebreakings, purse snatchings, armed robberies and auto theft have become a major social problem in New York and Police assert that one of the reasons that that triggered all these serious offences is drug addiction.

After a twenty-year study on drug trafficking and drug addiction, the specialists reached the “bitter” conclusion that 80-90 per cent of the drug addicts hospitalized for specific medical treatment have finally returned to their “habit”.

According to the content of this text, do you find drug addiction a serious social problem? Argue.

TEMA NR. 15

TERMENI POLITIENESTI SI JURIDICI – TERMINOLOGIE IN LIMBA ENGLEZA. VERBUL MODAL « MAY » .

TEXT IN LIMBA ENGLEZA CU TERMENI POLITIENESTI SI JURIDICI

Cititi si traduceti urmatoarele texte:

Read and translate the following texts:

At the end of a trial, the judge will sum up and, in the case of a guilty verdict will sentence the defendant. He may sentence him to life imprisonment. In the United States, life imprisonment is the usual penalty for treason. The judge may also sentence the defendant to a shorter prison sentence, as in the case of a burglary for instance. Sometimes the defendant may be sentenced to a fine, as in the case of a person who commits a certain misdemeanor.

In Britain, if you are accused of a crime or if you want to sue someone, you first have to talk to a solicitor who gives you preliminary advice and then will instruct a barrister to represent and defend you in a court.

Before the trial begins, the jurors swear to decide the facts fairly. They hear the testimony given by witnesses for both sides, including cross-examinations.

In civil suits for financial damages, the jury must decide who is at fault and must determine the amount of money to be paid.

Translate and keep into your main the following words and expressions.

to sum up;

life inprisonment;

penalty;

treason;

felony;

federal prison;

misdemeanor;

solicitor;

barrister;

to sue someone;

testimony;

counsel;

jury;

jurors;

financial damages;

is at fault;

fairly;

Criminal Code;

court;

search;

warrant (for arrest).

Make up sentences of your own with these words and expresions.

EXERCITII DE VOCABULAR

Ex.1. Potriviti delicventul din coloana stanga cu definitiile marcate

in litere (a – l) :

1. an arsonist;

2. an assassin;

3. a deserter;

4. an embezzler;

5. a forger;

6. a fraud or con man;

7. a hooligan;

8. a mugger;

9. a poacher;

10. a racketeer;

11. a smuggler;

12. a terrorist.

a./ tries to enforce his political demands by carrying out or threatening acts of violence.

b./ pretends or claims to be what he is not.

c./ makes money by dishonest business methods,e.g. by selling worthless things.

d./ steals from his own company.

e./ attacks and robs people especially in public places.

f./ sets fire to property.

g./ kills for political reasons or reward.

k./ brings goods into one country from another illegally.

I./ hunts illegally on smb.else’s land.

f./ makes false money or documents.

k./ a soldier who leaves the army without permission.

l./ causes damage or disturbance in public places.

Ex. 2. Alegeti raspunsul corect:

Choose the right answer:

POLICE

1. The policeman asked the suspect to make a (n) .

a./ account; b./ declaration ; c./ deposition ; d./ statement.

2. The chief of police said that he saw no . between the four murders.

a./ communication; b./ connection; c./ join; d./ joint.

3. The detective stoodbehind the door waiting for the assailant.

a./ immovable; b./ lifeless; c./ motionless; d./ static.

4. The police off the street where the bomb had gone off.

a./ battened; d./ cordoned; c./ fastened; d./ shuttered.

5. The police set a to catch the thieves.

a./ device; b./ plan; c./ snare; d./ trap.

6. The police their attention to the events that led up to the accident.

a./ completed; b./ confined; c./ confirmed; d./ contained.

7. As the result of the police on the disco, ten people were arrested.

a./ entry; b./ invasion; c./ raid; d./ storm.

8. The police made sure everyone stood well . of the fire.

a./ away; b./ clear; c./ free; d./ out.

9. The unruly was broken up by the police.

a./ collection; b./ congregation; c./ group; d./ mob.

The defence attorney is cross-examining a witness. When all the evidence has been seen and heard, the jury will retire and decide whether the defendant is innocent or guilty.

In the case of a violent crime, they may find him guilty of first degree murder or willful murder. If the victim’s death was accidental, the defendant may be found guilty of second degree murder or manslaughter.

If the victim was beaten up rather than killed, the defendant may be guilty of GBH - grevious bodily harm or, more simply, assault.

Less violent criminals include: kidnappers, arsonists, smugglers, blackmailers, forgers, armed robbers, burglars, pick-pockets, shoplifters and trespassers.

In American courts, the defendant sits next to his or her attorney. In British courts, the defendant sits in a special box, called the dock.

Vocabulary Practice

Make up sentences using the folwwing words and expressions.Use an Englies – Romanian dictionary.

Defence attorney;

Cross-examination;

Evidence;

Defendant;

First-degree murder;

Manslaughter;

G.B.H./ grevious bodily harm;

Assault;

Arsonists;

Smugglers;

Blackmailers;

Forgers;

Robbers;

Armed robbers;

Burglars;

Pick-pockets;

Shoplifters;

Trespassers;

Prosecution;

Guilty;

Dock;

Less violent criminals;

Crime;

Murder;

Murder will out.

VERBUL MODAL ”MAY”

Are mai multe situatii de utilizare.

1. Solicitarea sau acordarea permisiunii.

La prezent :

You may leave now.

May I talk to him for a minute ?

Forma negativa/ neacordarea permisiunii / este may not.

“May I park my car here ?”

No, you may not.

La timpurile trecut si viitor may se inlocuieste cu:

to be allowed to - a avea voie sa,

to be permitted to - a avea permisiunea sa.

Exemple de folosire a verbului modal may la trecutul simplu si la viitor.

He was allowed to leave the hospital last week.

They weren’t permitted to visit that military camp.

We shall be permitted to drive when we are 18 years old.

He will not be allowed to read that report.

It is top secret.

2. May urmat de infinitivul prezent exprima o speculatie facuta de vorbitor despre un eveniment prezent sau viitor, o posibilitate prezenta sau viitoare.

Ex.: He may be in the country now.

They may come tomorrow.

Talk to him, but he may refuse you.

3. May urmat de infinitivul perfect este utilizat pentru a exprima o speculatie despre o actiune sau un eveniment din trecut.

They may have forgotten our deal.

He may have travelled by train.

The plane may have been late because of the fog.

NOTA: Forma de Past Tense Simple a verbului may, pentru trecerea la vorbirea indirecta este might.

Ex.: David: “John may come tomorrow”.

David said that John might come the next day.

Completati spatiile libere cu MAY / MIGHT sau BE ALLOWED TO, la timpul corect:

Fill in the blanks with MAY / MIGHT or BE ALLOWED TO in the correct tens:

a./ The children .. go out and play yesterday.

b./ I asked my mother if I invite my friends at the party.

c./ You .. enter without paying.

d./ You . take that book home unless you fill in this form.

e./ The children hardly leave the room when they started a game on the playground.

g./ I asked the teacher if I make a suggestion.

h./ “Then, I send Jim to you ?” “Yes, of course”.

TEMA NR. 16

INFRACTIUNE SI JUSTITIE. CONCORDANTA TIMPURILOR

EXERCITIU LEXICAL.

Idioms to do with crime

Match the idioms 1-15 with the correct definitions marked a-o.

1 a con trick a (of goods) to be stolen

2 a fence b bribe someone

3 an inside job c discover someone in the act of

committing a crime

4 blow the whistle

on someone/some- d a dishonest trick played on someone

thing in order to get money from them

5 case a joint e legitimize money obtained illegally

6 catch someone red- f publicly reveal something illegal or

handed dishonest

7 cook the books g stealing a car and driving it, often

dangerously, just for fun

8 do a bunk h examine or inspect the place you

intend to rob

10 fall off the back of i someone who buys and sells stolen goods

11 go straight j avoid punishment completely

12 get off scot-free k falsify a company’s accounts; cheat at

13 grease someone's bookkeeping

l a crime committed by someone

14 joy-riding connected with the place or organisation

where the crime took place

15 launder money

m serve a prison sentence

n give up a criminal way of life; not break the

law again

o disappear without telling anyone where you

are going

TEXT CU VOCABULAR SPECIFIC : „LEGAL EAGLES FOXED BY BIZARRE SUICIDE”.

Read the following text and try to fill in the mising words, using the following phrases that have been removed from the text.

intending to commit suicide

the killing of Mr Opus

having committed suicide

threatening her with a shotgun

confronted with the mudre charge

loading the shotgun

knowing that his father often used the shotgun threateningly

to protect some bulding workers

LEGAL EAGLES FOXED BY BIZARRE SUICIDE

On 23rd March 1994, a medical examiner in the state of New York viewed the body of a man called Ronald Opus and concluded that he died from a shotgun wound to the head.

The deceased had jumped from the top of a ten-storey building (a) . He left a note to that effect. As he fell past the ninth floor, his life was ended by a shotgun blast passing through a window, which killed him instantly.

Neither the shooter nor the victim was aware that a safety net had been installed just below, at the eighth floor level (b) ….. Ronald Opus would not have been able to complete his suicide the way he had planned.

Ordinarily, a person who sets out to commit suicide and ultimately succeeds, even though the mechanism might not be what he intended, is still described as (c) Mr Opus's suicide attempt would probably not have been successful because of the safety net. For this reason, the medical examiner felt that he had a homicide on his hands.

The room on the ninth floor that the shotgun blast came from was occupied by an elderly married couple. At the time of the incident, they were arguing vigorously, and he was (d) .The man pulled the trigger but completely missed his wife and the pellets went through the window, striking Mr Opus.

When one intends to kill person A, but kills person B in the attempt, one is guilty of the murder of person B. (e) . the old man and his wife were both adamant. They both said they thought the shotgun was unloaded. The wife said it was her husband's long-standing habit to threaten her with the unloaded shotgun. He had no intention to murder her. There fore, (f) appeared to be an accident. But how did the shotgun, normally unloaded, get to be loaded?

The continuing investigation turned up a witness who saw the old couple's son (g) about six weeks prior to the fatal accident. It transpired that the old lady had cut off her son's financial support and the son, (h) loaded the gun with the expectation that his father would shoot his mother. The case now becomes one of murder on the part of the son for the death of Ronald Opus.

Further investigation revealed that the son was in fact Ronald Opus. He had become increasingly despondent over his failure to engineer his mother's murder. This led him to jump off the ten-storey building, only to be killed by a shotgun blast. The son having murdered himself, the medical examiner closed the case us suicide.

LEXICAL EXERCICE:

Which of the possible meanings of these sentences and phrases do you think is correct?

1 He left a note to that effect.

(a) He left a note that explained this.

(b) Fie left a note that had a big effect on people.

2 The medical examiner felt that he bad a homicide on his bands.

(a) The medical examiner was a witness to a murder.

(b) He decided tin's was probably a case of murder.

3 The man completely missed his wife.

(a) He tried to hit her and failed.

(b) He felt lonely without her

4 it transpired that the old lady had cut off her son 'v financial support.

(a) It was common knowledge that the old lady had stopped giving money to her son.

(b) It became known that the old lady had stopped giving money to her son.

5 He had become increasingly despondent,

(a) He had always been very unhappy.

(b) He had become more and more unhappy.

CONCORDANTA TIMPURILOR: NOTIUNE, REGULI,

UTILIZARE IN CONTEXT.

Concordanta sau corespondenta timpurilor (Sequence of Tenses) exprima raportul dintre timpul predicatului unei propozitii subordonate si timpul predicatului din propozitia principala sau regenta.

Datorita raporturilor logice de timp care se stabilesc intre diferite predicate intr-o fraza, un anumit timp verbal nu poate fi insotit intr-o alta propozitie de orice alt timp verbal. Aceste raporturi logice sunt exprimate printr-o serie de raporturi gramaticale numai in engleza, numite in sintaxa concordanta timpurilor.

Aceasta este o problema foarte complexa in limba engleza, motiv pentru care vor fi amintite numai cazurile cele mai frecvent intalnite.

Regula 1.

Un timp prezent in propozitia principala (Present, Present Perfect) poate fi insotit in subordonata de orice timp cerut de logica exprimarii.

I know (that) - he is at home

- he has arrived

- he left yesterday

- he had sent the message

- he will ring you up tomorrow.

Regula 2.

Un timp trecut in principala cere tot un timp trecut in subordonata, astfel:

a./ Propozitia principala Propozitia secundara

Past Tense Past Tense

pentru simultaneitate in trecut

We knew (that) they were away

(Stiam ca ei sunt plecati)

He said he was busy.

b./ Past Tense Past Perfect

pentru anterioritate fata de trecut

I thought I had seen him before

He told me he had been there

John switched on after he had read the instructions

the TV set of use

John a deschis Tv dupa ce a citit/citise instructiunile de utilizare

Past Perfect, pentru exprimarea anterioritatii se poate traduce prin mai-mult-ca-perfect, dar perfectul compus este mai frecvent.

c./ P.P. P.S.

Past Tense/Past Perfect Future-in-the-Past

pentru ulterioritate in trecut

They said they would come the next day

She had promised she would help us.

Exceptii la regula 2.

a./ fac exceptie de la corespondenta timpurilor trecute, subordonatele completive directe care exprima:

- adevaruri general valabile, un fapt universal cunoscut:

P.P. P.S.

We all knew that the Earth is round.

I was told that Shakespeare is the greatest English writer.

O serie de verbe sunt specifice acestei exceptii:

think, realize, believe, hope, regret, care, utilizate in propozitia principala presupun adevarul complementului direct din subordonata, acesta fiind adevarat si in momentul vorbirii.

I realized (that) he is an American, after his accent.

b./ Dupa un timp trecut in propozitia principala subordonata comparativa si in cea cauzala:

Exemple:

P.P. P.S.

You spoke French than you do now

better last year - subordonata comparativa

I didn’t speak to him for I will meet/ see him tomorrow.

- subordonata cauzala.

BIBLIOGRAFIE

1. Allsop Jake - Engleza pentru toti. English Grammar, Exercises, Ed.TEORA, Bucuresti, 1996.

2. Badescu Alice - Gramatica limbii engleze, Editura Stiintifica,

Bucuresti, 1963.

3. Galateanu - - Exercitii de gramatica engleza, Farnoaga G.

Editura OMEGAPRESS, Buc., 1994.

4. Galateanu - - Sinteze de gramatica engleza,

Farnoaga G. Editura CRUSO, Bucuresti,1995.

5. Galateanu - - Gramatica limbii engleze, Editura

Farnoaga G. OMEGAPRESS, Bucuresti, 1992.

Comisel Ecaterina

6. Galateanu - - Limba engleza in conversatie, Ed.,

Farnoaga G. Stiintifica si Enciclopedica, Buc., 1982.

Lecca Sachelarie D.

7. Misztal Mariusz - Test Your Vocabulary. Editura TEORA, Buc., 1996

8. Levitchi Leon - Gramatica limbii engleze, Editura TEORA,

Bucuresti, 1995.

9. Popp Maxim - Engleza vorbita - cuvinte si expresii de uz

curent,Editura SPORT-TURISM, Bucuresti, 1978.

10. x x x - Dictionar Englez – Roman;

Dictionar Roman - Englez



Sb = subiect; Vb = verb; a. p. = alte parti de vorbire.







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