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RESEARCH ON EVOLUTION IN RURAL TOURISM PERSPECTIVE OF SUSTAINNABLE DEVELOPMENT. CASE STUDY: AREA VADU CRISULUI

RESEARCH ON EVOLUTION IN RURAL TOURISM PERSPECTIVE OF SUSTAINNABLE DEVELOPMENT. CASE STUDY: AREA VADU CRISULUI




RESEARCH ON EVOLUTION IN RURAL TOURISM PERSPECTIVE OF SUSTAINNABLE DEVELOPMENT. CASE STUDY: AREA VADU CRISULUI

Abstract

It is designed as a complete set of alternatives to generate income for rural residents, resulting in a tourism city of economic growth and improve those living conditions. Tourism in this environment has direct action on business and property residents. Agrotourism or rural tourism plays an important role in the revitalization and social development and environmental impact and rural areas. Families in rural areas are meant to be an entity of farmers to prepare for their new role of tourism entrepreneurs. din zonele rurale   au menirea de a fi o entitate de agricultori care se pregateasc pentru noul lor rol de turism antreprenori.




Key words: tourism, agricultural, sustainable development, concept.

INTRODUCTION

Rural tourism in the concept of sustainable development involves three aspects, namely:
- Aspects of economic, by increasing operating and recovery resources
- Environmental issues, on the recycling and environmental degradation,
- Social issues, on increasing the number of jobs, the practice of traditional habits in order to attract tourists.

At present, rural areas go through a series of difficulties resulting crisis in agriculture so that farmers and their families seek new opportunities for employment. Among these new opportunities, rural tourism is presented as an alternative to diversify their traditions with obtaining a financial capital without affecting the traditions preserved for generations. Thus, the practice of agro tourism is by knit great variety of activities made possible in this framework with the hospitality of the rural population.

It is an ongoing industry growth in our country, the rural population must adapt to new requirements and rules imposed by the EU as well as to keep the tradition. In keeping to this requirement, rural population will benefit from a higher economic income. In terms of sustainable development, rural tourism is tourism destinations ability to remain competitive against all problems, to attract visitors for the first time and I fidelizeze subsequently to remain unique in terms of cultural and be in a permanent equilibrium with the environment.
Sustainable tourism must balance the balance between satisfying the needs of two types: economic development and protection of potential natural environment as a whole. Agrotourism or rural tourism plays an important role in the revitalization and social development and environmental impact and rural areas.

Rural tourism includes a range of products, services and facilities promoted by the inhabitants of rural areas to attract tourists in their region in order to generate additional income and employment. Hospitality provides a wide range of activities and services, items that are contained in a package with the role to attract tourists in the area. It is an initiative coordinated by the rural community that is involved in this initiative all the members of the community.

Rural tourism encourages the creation of recreational facilities for locals and tourists, the incomes and stimulate commerce, generate jobs, which represent a factor for the development of the region's economy and recovery of natural resources. A region of rural localities can not enter into a competition to provide tourists with a system integrated and centralized coordination for products and services but in particular must provide information on tourism related products each locality, as well as information relating to infrastructure.
This integrated system from community involvement. Competitiveness does not mean that rural tourism should be equal to a certain type of high standard in terms of hotels in cities or on the coast. The power of rural tourism lies in the particular product that gives man and rural areas and geographically.

Therefore, the EU deals with an approach to tourism as an integral part of program development,
with effective support from state agencies and involvement of interest groups and local people, especially small farmers and their families, and non-agricultural sectors of the community. The objective of this research study is to demonstrate previous experience that had a Vadu Crisului area residents before the area became a tourist, and consequently their role to develop and promote the area.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The research period was one year, months respectively in August 2007 and August 2008. The procedures used were based bibliographic research and documentaries, supplemented by interviews with local people who are part of all social categories, as well as methods of direct observation. I also used books, magazines, maps and articles submitted locally. People who have given me information are part of the following categories, namely: the mayor and local council of the village, the priest, the elderly (people), employees of the forest, teachers in the area, and families who have shared this experience. The vast majority of these people had a certain experience in this regard. The interviews were open nature of discussions. Observations obtained after the interviews, as well as legends from the area have recorded at the end of each day, in the form of journal writing. We have also been integrated into society and invited to participate in all kinds of specific activities area, involved me to assess the quality of services provided by families already involved in the process of rural tourism.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Background and historical area Vadu Crisului.

Town Vadu Crisului is situated in the north-west of Romania, Bihor county in the East. Center common Vadu Crisului town, is located on the parallel of latitude 46 59 `North and the meridian of 22 3` 30 `` east longitude. The surface of the parallel is between 22 and `22` 22 34 east longitude. Vadu Crisului City is located at elevation 270 m. The village is located at the exit of the pass quickly Crisului that bears his name, is played and toponymy town. Mark limit the south-east of depressions Vadului, depression 'gulf' between the mountains and forest Craiului Plopis Mountains, depression bearing the name of the city, being the largest and most important in the area. The village is crossed by the E60 European road, a distance of 50 km from the city of Oradea and 100 km from the city of Cluj Napoca. All the more passes and rail Oradea - Cluj-Napoca, the international line.

Town Vadu Crisului consists of four municipalities, namely:  

- Vadu Crisului-center town

- Birtin-town situated at the foot of the Mountains Forest Craiului distance of 1km from the center of the village, is crossed by the county road DJ 108 I - Astileu-Vadu Crisului.

- Cris Topa of-town located depression Vadului the E60 highway at a distance of 2km of Vadu Crisului, is crossed by Borod Valley (a tributary of Crisului Quick).

- Autumnal - a village situated on the heights Mountains Forest Craiului (Plateau Ten Borders), the distance of 7km Vadu Crisului.

Administrative area (fig. 1) of the total Vadu Crisului is 6751ha area is divided by localities in the following manner: Vadu Crisului - 3867 meters, Birtin - 342 meters, the Topa River - 476 meters, autumnal - 2066 meters.
  Fig. 1. Area rural village Vadu Crisului.



Suprafatele satelor comunei Vadu Crisului.

The history, shared their Vadu Crisului being made this civilization since the Stone Age (Paleolithic), testimonies underlying this argument is archeological discoveries, especially in caves in the area, which have revealed vestiges database until age Bronze. People were calling the cultivation of land, raising livestock and pottery. The latter concern is attested in the documents since 1639. Of old XVIII - XIX, the population is in an increasing number, Vadu Crisului being the largest city in the valley Crisului Quickly. Ethnic composition has always been consistent: about 65% Romanians, 33% Hungarians and other nationalities.

Entry into service of the railways, section I-Suncuius, in 1870, the discovery in 1905 by a famous cave rich in fauna cavernicola, gave new impetus to the development of the village, and that becomes a fascinating tour. Many inhabitants of the village Vadu Crisului participated in the popular uprising from Attack in 1905, some were killed and others arrested. World War I (1914-1918) discontinue development of the settlements, many sons of the three villages falling on strong fronts for what concerned them was foreign. I see the villagers, Birtin Topa and participated in the National Assembly of Alba Iulia, where the union decided to Transylvania to Romania. Detachments in Sellers withdrawal of the Roman armies were stationed in the area have committed numerous atrocities in the village range during January-April 1919 mainly to Birtin.

1930 brought an event that has emotional footprint for a long time on the town. On June 6, following the loss of one of the tanks of the aircraft, has remained flat fuel and landed in the outskirts of the village's future regeCarol II, who came to Bucharest to Munich viaViena. The girl who gave the king to drink water from pitcher  of clay was taken to Bucharest, and was part of the royal suite, and the model for one of the bills from that period. (Interesting that Professor John Godea, former director of the Village Museum in Bucharest, was in the period 1969 - 1970 Professor of History at the School of Vadu-Cris and the state to host even the woman who gave water of King Charles II ).

Teamster who left the wagon and has reserves of fuel for aircraft was engaged CFR. Good receiving what was then led a long relationship with the sympathy of the sovereign people. In place of landing the plane was built a monument and later a barracks where the events took place during the day King. A delegation from Vadu-Cris participates in the parade each year in Bucharest. 8 June 1940 on the occasion of the anniversary of 10 years back in Romania, King Charles II issued a century gold coins of 42 g, with a diameter of 41 mm which represents a girl who brought water king in June 6 1930 Vadu to Crisului.

The family name of the girl was Mudura, but in Bucharest it came with the name of ways. A statue of the girl with pitcher water (statue Mode) is now well on ways to end Alley Restauration Herastrau Park. For a brief period until 1940, Vadu Crisului Vadul was named Carol.

Second Vienna Award (30 August 1940) has brought these lands Hungarian state administration. Horthyste armies have been received with joy by the Hungarian population (8 September 1940) that passed the measures of replacing all of Romanian institutions. World War II has strongly affected the lives of people, many Sateni falling in fighting away from home, but resulted in the cancellation Dictate, Romanian and Soviet armies entering into Vadu Crisului and Birtin on 14 October 1944. In withdrawing, military occupation of Hungary have all blew up tunnels and rail bridge over the River.

After 1948, the communist regime imposed by measures that have affected the property itself inhabitants, to cooperativizat agriculture, were nationalized all small businesses in the village. Among the achievements of these years, in the first place is virtually establishment High School, one of the first in the rural area (1953) subsequently equipped with a modern building but disbanded in 1973 and re in 1990 and has had teachers of high value and He gave generations of graduates that have been said on nationally.

From 1955, Vadu Crisului cave and waterfall with the narrow path have been declared natural reserve, all this year has ended and the electrification of the village. In 1962 started building a modern cultural hostel which was then noticed by the rich to work. The idea to harness local potters creativity and desire to put the record folklore area led in 1969 to launch an event became tradition: Fair of Customs salt, then held each year on the first Sunday in June . It bears its name in memory of the place, a Vadului on River where the clearance between the goods and salt in centuries XIII - XV.

2. Presentation points tourist area Vadu Crisului.

Sightseeing in Vadu city Crisului are: Nature Reserve 'Defile Crisului Hurry' (219.7 hectares) and in the area can practice rafting, climbing and classic sports, canyoning and caves. Vadu Crisului cave is located in the slope left of Defile Crisului Quick, at about 250 meters downstream from a halt Cave, and has the mouth of entry to only 295 m altitude, making it one of the lowest in the country.

Discovered in 1903 by the inspector Karl Handl, it is explored, books and described by the first soda, and then in 1907 is the first arrangement of its culverts and wooden staircases. Is a researcher from the fauna, and after the first soda is forced, and describes crease section of the second siphons. After 1948, tourism organizations of the General Council of Trade Unions restore and enhance the tourism complex of outdoor stairs and renew pedestals from the cave and tries to electrification with the current produced by an electric turbine triggered by the waters of course below In period 1955-1963 cave was investigated by I. Viehmann, and T. C. Plesa Rusu, who study the fauna on cavernicole addition, it produces a complete map of the underground Golului, determine the origin of water, explore section of the second sifoane and make clarifications of the genetic and evolutionary . In 1969, Tara Museum in Oradea Cris reamenajeaza with a ladder and culverts, metal and concrete, and oelectrifica on about 600 m in length. Later this cave is the subject of environmental research and measurements topoclimatice, then was presented in the awareness of gaps Karst.

Defile Crisului Quick (Fig.2) shine through the picturesque, or note of new and remarkable accessibility, conferred by the existence of roads upgraded roads and the railways Oradea - Cluj Napoca. A large area (357 hectares) of this region has the status of the complex nature reserve. Thus the reservation Defileul mixed Crisului Quick protect the special landscape, caves and fauna cavernicola them, but especially special flora. The walls of limestone an flora of the southern, a vestige of vegetation xeroterme (eg Ceterach officinalis, feriga Balkans). The region is located in the central part - the Northern Mountains Forest Craiului. Axis perimeter is given by the river Crisul Quick, clinch the walls of limestone hills of the border. Depression Suncuius shelters homonym town, famous in the past because of mines. At the exit from downstream of the pass is located Vadu Crisului town, famous for its pottery and masters deal from 'Customs Jump' which takes place on the first Sunday of June. The area is almost completely forested with beech, oak fluffy, hornbeam and arin, glades often occupied by small farmers.



Fauna these forests is typical for the areas of deal: deer, wild boar, hare, fox or wolf can be found in large numbers and can often be encountered. Avifauna is also remarkable because this squirrel the cuckoo, presurei golden or codobaturii. A new bill is conferred by cavernicola fauna, consisting of worms, little crabs or insects that live only in the underground.

Karst is represented by the mark. Cave Vantului with those over 50 km of galleries is the largest underground network of the country, has the status of reserve Speleological and can be visited only after obtaining a special permits. Tourists can enjoy visiting the underground cave landscape Unguru Mare (electrified) to Pestera of Vadu Crisului (arranged by the stairs and culverts) and the most experienced can choose to caves Old or Moan. In terms of forms on the surface of Karst terrain, Plateau Ten Borders is among the largest and most beautiful forms of such country. New landscape is given by various doline, Uvala, dry valleys, lapiezuri, existing. Availability of accommodation are varied. Cave chalets and Zenovie House, Castle, namely the Suncuius camp, or camping in the tent staff are alternatives they can use. Network is relatively extensive markings, routes starting from Cottage Cave Suncuius or place.

Defile Suncuius - Vadu Crisului is located on the river Crisul quick and impressive traveler by the multitude of caves among the most important is that in Vadu Crisului. Is a very complex karst scenic, subject to calcarele Craiului trees. Also on the narrow path bordered by Crisului Quick steep wild, there are a series of caves, some of which are significant: Vadului Cave, Cave Podina, Zmaului House, the Water Cave, Cave Fugarilor, Deventului Cave, Cave Capri. In the sphere of influence of the tourist areas and appears plateau karst Ten Borders, drilling Uvala and the doline and cave wind near Suncuius. In Bihor county, which is widely viewed caves are: Vadu Crisului included in the natural reserve Vadu Crisului Cave and wind Craiului Forest near Suncuius, on the left bank of Crisului Quickly. The latter, crossed by an ongoing underground water, is considered the largest cave of our country as long (18 km), presenting the classical morphology of underground deposits in the crusts of white plaster, which takes on large wall surfaces and surfaces galleries.

It should be noted that Cave Vadului is fitted with in the immediate vicinity and a chalet with a very picturesque. The beauty spot is highlighted and the cascade Pestireu brook, which crosses the Cave Vadului. Exurgenta represents the karst cave Vadu-Cris is placed into the Crisului Quickly. Cave is the largest of the gate and is known by a waterfall that forms the waters just out of the cave, shop-in Crisul Quickly. It has a length of 1510 m. It has been discovered since 1903, and then arranged to visit the very short time with culverts and wooden staircases, thus becoming one of the first caves arranged in Romania.

Along with the opening of the cave to visit in the year 1905 is published by his Czaran Gyula and the first tourist guide of the cave that contained a detailed description of the visit accompanied by a remarkable draft. It was then restaured after 1948 by the Organization for Tourism of the General Council of Trade Unions, with the opportunity to try and introduction of electric lighting. In the year 1969 is again restaured (the Museum of the Cris-Oradea) and electrified over a distance of 500 meters, the two electrified cave in Romania. This cave but, unfortunately, an example of the negative impact of humans on the environment and to exploit mineral resources attractive non-existent.

Cave was the discovery in the year 1903 one of the most beautiful in Europe and have one of faunele cavernicole the richest in the country. At present neither of the two statements are no longer valid. Uncontrolled exploitation and unorganized, especially in the last two decades, has led to the destruction of both the largest part of speleotemelor at innegrirea walls because of carbide lamps, and the endangerment and extinction of some species of fauna cavernicola.

Fig.2. Presentation of the topography of the pass Crisul Quick and surrounding areas

legend

Legend

Beautiful wall

Backwater

Wall railway station

Cross

Wall terraces

Cave wall

The wall of the snail



Black woman

The ocean

Cracks

Cave goat

11. Gray wall

3. Organizing and promoting tourist area Vadu Crisului.

Most role meant to organize and promote tourism zone has Hall of the local and Local Council. In recent years, both the mayor and councilors have developed a series of strategies to promote the area managed to bring in investors in the area of tourism. Besides a number of families have passed agrotourism providing tourists places even in their own households is presented and preserved the tradition of this area. We also have implemented web pages can be accessed by both the Romans and tourists from foreign tourists.

CONCLUSIONS

From the historic area Vadu Crisului was continuously subjected to many changes.
Tourism has emerged as a proposal to improve the economy in the future population, but not unfold in the past.
Tenants are designed to improve the standard of family economically through tourism, without losing the individuality and control over the business.

In the town of Vadu Crisului all people have been integrated and participate in this project agroturistic. Thus in the town Vadu Crisului knit tradition and future economic interests.

In a more poetic, and even commercial instead of the end, we quote the author Alexander Spanu, the story 'Iubind among Crisuri' namely: 'In Vadu Crisului, the air has color, color clam flushed with stubbornness. Let then the sun is spargandu-n-pearl, mix with symbolic atoms enervate. And gains unearthly voice. Astral. tone and color it is the air Vadu !' .

REFERENCES:

1. Bran Fl, T. Simon, P. Nistoreanu - Ecotourism - Economic Publishing House, Bucharest, 2000, p. 18.
2. V. Glavan, 'tourism and environmental protection - issues the priority of Romania's future' in tourism in the   context of sustainable development, ASE Bucharest, Oct. 2000, p. 7.

3. Stanciulescu G., N. Lupu, G. Ligue - DicŃionar polyglot explanation terms used in tourism, All Publishing House. Bucharest, 1998, p. 72.

4. William F. Theobald, 'Global Tourism', Butterworth, Great Britain,

5. Mirela Costencu - Trends in the market of sustainable tourism, pag.207 University Eftimie Murgu resin, market Traian Vuia No. 1-4

Associaçao Caminhos de Pedra. Livro de sidecars: 1997-2001. Bento Gonçalves, 2001. Not published.
7. Silva, G., Edwards, J., Vaughn, R. Oportunidades e Desenvolvimento do it constrangimentos turismo rural. In: SIMÕES, O.; CRISTÓVAO, A. TERNA: turismo em rurais area's natural. Coimbra: Instituto Politécnico de Coimbra, 2003.
8. Moorish Fronza da Silva, Joaquim Almeida Anécio, Marcelino de Souza - The rural tourism and local social organizations in the District of Sao Pedro, Bento Gonçalves - RS, p. 335-344, 2006.
9. info@vadu-crisului.ro, the web page.








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