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Geopolitica dependentelor de resursele strategice si mediul de securitate

Geopolitica dependentelor de resursele strategice si mediul de securitate




Geopolitica dependentelor de resursele strategice si mediul de securitate

1. Din pdf de pe desktop

'We do have to do something about the energy problem. I can tell you that nothing has really taken me aback more, as Secretary of State, than the way that the politics of energy is […] 'warping' diplomacy around the world. It has given extraordinary power to some states that are using that power in not very good ways for the international system, states that would otherwise have very little power.' Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, testimony before the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee, April 5, 2006. din luft dependentele de pe desktop

-sa vad de unde se importa petrolul..fiecare stat de referinta de unde importa?

In statisticile opec am pentru tarile opec unde exporta

Today, oil supplies about 40 percent of the world’s energy and 95 percent of its transportation energy. As a result, those who own the lion share of the reserves of this precious energy source are at the driver’s seat of the world economy and their influence is steadily growing. Idem




Since the 1930s the Middle East has emerged as the world’s most important source of energy and the key to the stability of global economy. This tumultuous region produces today 37 percent of the world’s oil and 18 percent of its gas. When it comes to reserves, the Persian Gulf is king. It is home to 65 percent of global oil proven reserves and 45 percent of its natural gas. The Middle East also controls a significant portion of the hydrocarbons that are yet to be discovered. According to the U.S. Geological Survey over 50 percent of the undiscovered reserves of oil and 30 percent of gas are concentrated in the region primarily in Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, UAE and Libya.

In pdf sice de dependenta fata de orientul mijlociu..dar sa luam pe fiecare importatoare majora in parte si sa vedem de unde importa ca sa vedem care este zona si tara de care sunt cei mai multi dependennti

--factori destabilizatori ca de exemplu crizele, razboaiele, guverne nedemocratice neaccesul la cultura etc ce au loc in tarile bogate in resurse si pot avea un impact major asupra pietei si etc A second destabilizing factor with certain impact on the oil market is the looming crisis with Iran

era o chestia cu noua ordine mondiala? Cauzata de petrol si gaze

-rutele dependentei globale

dictrina carter referitoare la petrol

-comportamentul chinei, americii, comportamentul tarilor importatoare, cel al tarilor exportatoare

All this means that in the long run, as China and India’s dependence on the Middle East grows, they are likely to increasingly challenge U.S. policy in the Middle East, turning the region from a unipolar region in which the U.S. enjoys a near uncontested hegemony into a multipolar system in which more and more global powers vie for influence.

Dupa ce vad cine depinde de cine si in ce masura iau principalele trei zone de care se depinde si zic: impactul dependentei in securitatea globagal, impactul de pendentei in economia globala si vorbesc putin si despre comportamentul celor care sunt dependenti de ei.

Energy security trans-Atlantic dialogue on energy security. This has much to do with the soaring oil prices and the decline in Norwegian oil production which makes Europe increasingly dependent for its oil on the Middle East.

OIL IMPERIALISM?

Oil-imperialism of the powerful nations is becoming the modern manifestation of

geopolitics. It contains political and military action as well as the influence on

markets (on demand and supply, on prices and the “oil-currency”). It is only

possible to stop oil-imperialism by an organised decomposition of the congruence

of capitalism and fossilism, by initiating the transition to a regime of renewable

resources. This means that capitalism as we know it will come to an end.

2. Din pdf pp10fbgeoeconomie

Under this perspective, the new world order is a new world

disorder. The disorder, however, has economic, political, social causes. It is the

result of the impact of geopolitical interests of the superpower which are dictating

the agenda.

The agenda is labelled national security, and one crucial part of it

(besides security against migrants, organized crime, prostitution or drug

trafficking) is the secure provision of strategic resources, such as petroleum,

uranium and other minerals or agricultural resources (US National Security

Strategy of 2002; Cheney Report of 2001). How important is it for the geopolitical

stance of the USA that leading figures such as Cheney, Rice and Rumsfeld, and

many others, including Bush himself, have strong ties to the California-Texas - oil

industry? Is the Bush administration driven by a Wall Street-military-CalTexcomplex?

[O1] Geopolitics today

includes the efforts of extending rules (of “global and good governance”) on all

parts of the world in order to oblige governments as well as private actors to follow

the same set of rules which allow exploitation of resources – of manpower as well

as of natural resources by the powerful actors on the stage of the global theatre.

Therefore, the strongest, the fittest, the most competitive actors have

the best chances in the game over exploitation of resources. Modern geopolitcs,

therefore, always comes accompanied by geo-economics.

in organizing the “grand chessboard” of exploitation of resources at the

beginning of the 21st century.

[O2] The following account above all deals with the energy requirements for capital

accumulation. The access to energy resources always has been a major cause of

conflict and violence.

As we are approaching the limits of the provision of fossil

resources und thus the end of the fossil energy regime, there are increasingly sharp

conflicts about access to resources, as well as conflicts resulting from the

ecological degradation of large territories. The dimensions of these conflicts are

manifold. They take the form of conflicts over trade, or they appear as diplomatic

pressures and political and even military intervention. Attempts are undertaken to

resolve conflicts within a framework of international agreements, but this

framework more and more is unilaterally manipulated by the leading capitalist

powers. Conflicts about oil have led to open wars, waged by the “only superpower”

against Afghanistan and Iraq, although in the Bushian newspeak this military

aggression has been labelled as a war waged on international terrorism. But also

the wars in Sudan, Congo, Columbia etc. are neither ethnical conflicts nor the

outcome of a powerplay between competing elites. They are waged on the

domination of resource-rich territories. Very often external actors, such as TNCs

and private “security-suppliers” are involved.

In the case of oil, however, it is impossible to neglect natural properties and

boundaries of the resource; bits and bytes cannot substitute for oil. The stocks of oil

are limited, and oil will be running out over the next few decades. Although the

supply of oil is limited, the demand for oil will increase in spite of the attempts to

save energy and to increase the efficiency of its use. This is for two interconnected

reasons.—foarte bun pentru a argumenta

Economic mechanisms, supported by political pressures

transplant the limits of energy supply into the working of the global accumulation

process. The limits of resources on the background of increasing demand are

respon

Under “normal” conditions capitalist accumulation relied on the production of

relative surplus value, on productivity increases, powered by fossil fuel. Under the

conditions of energy shortage and increasing energy prices accumulation of capital

more and more takes the form of a process of dispossession (Harvey; de Angeles)

of the less powerful by the more powerful private corporations and national states.

sible for higher conflictuality between political and economic actor

La pag 11 si 12 foarte bun

Toata partea cu Oil Imperialism e foarte buna in general si mai ales atunci cand voi vorbi despre SUA



T

Anexe

Tabelul 1. Petrol: rezerve dovedite  pe tari

Sursa: BP Statistical Review of World Energy

Tabelul 2. Gaze naturale: rezerve dovedite pe tari

Sursa: BP Statistical Review of World Energy

Tabelul 3. Productia mondila de petrol pe tari si regiuni in milioane de tone

Sursa: BP Statistical Review of World Energy

Tabelul 5. Productia de gaz la nivel mondial

Sursa: BP Statistical Review of World Energy

Tabelul 6. Consumul de petrol la nivel mondial in milioane de tone

Sursa: BP Statistical Review of World Energy

Tabelul 7. Consumul de gaz natural la nivel mondial

Sursa: BP Statistical Review of World Energy

Tabelul 8. Exportul mondial de petrol dupa tara.

Sursa: OPEC World Energy Outlook 2008

Tabelul 9. Exportul mondial de gaze naturale dupa tara

Sursa: OPEC World Energy Outlook 2008.

Tabelul 10. Importurile de petrol dupa tara

Sursa: OPEC World Energy Outlook

Tabelul 11. Importul mondial de gaze naturale pe tari

Sursa: OPEC World Energy Outlook 2008

Tabelul 12. Cererea de petrol la nivel mondial (in milioane de barili/zi)

 

Sursa: IEA World Energy Outlook 2008.

Tabelul 13. Oferta de petrol la nivel mondial (in mb/zi)

Sursa: IEA World Energy Outlook 2008

Tabelul 14. Cererea de gaz la nivel mondial in miliarde de metrii cubi.

Figura 1. Schimbarea in crerea de petrol la nivel mondial si evolutia Pib-ului

Sursa: IEA World Enegy Outlook 2008

Harta 1. Petrol: rezerve dovedite dupa regiune

Harta 2. Gaze naturale: rezerve dovedite dupa regiune

Sursa: BP Statistical Review of World Energy

Harta 3. Comertul mondial cu petrol la nivelul anului 2008

Sursa: BP Statistical Review of World Energy

Harta 4. Comertul mondial cu gaze naturale la nivelul anului 2008

Sursa: BP Statistical Review of World Energy


 [O1]Fb pentru introducerea de la acest capitol

 [O2]Bun pentru introducerea principala








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